Wednesday, August 2, 2017

Amla Analysis

Physicochemical analysis of different varieties of Amla and comparative analysis of functional and nutritive values of Amla fruit, seed and seed coat powder.

Physicochemical analysis of different varieties of Amla and comparative analysis of functional and 
nutritive values of Amla fruit, seed and seed coat powder

2.1. Introduction
Amla (Emblica officinalis L.) as a Euphorbiaceous plant is widely distributed in subtropical and tropical areas of China, India, Indonesia and Malaysia.
 The fruit is used as a major constituent in several Ayurvedic preparations for promotion of health and longevity. It is known that Amla is a good source of polyphenols, flavones, tannins and other bioactive compounds. These substances being strong antioxidants might contribute to the health effects of Amla. Several active compounds like gallic acid, ellagic acid, 1-O-galloyl-D glucose, chebulininc acid, quercetin, chebulagic acid, kaempferol, mucic acid 1,4-lactone 3-O-gallate, isocorilagin, chebulanin, mallotusinin
and acylated apigenin glucoside compounds have been isolated from the aqueous extract of Amla. These bioactive components have anticancer, hypolipidemic, expectorant, purgative, spasmolytic, antibacterial, hypoglycaemic hepatoprotective,
hypolipidemic activities and also can attenuate dyslipdaemia. Though the functional properties of Amla have been reported, the seed and seed coat of Amla have never been investigated for their functional properties as well as compositional analysis. In this
chapter the physicochemical properties of different varieties of Amla are presented.
Further, Amla seed and seed coat of Chakaiya variety (major processing waste of Amla based industries) were separately analyzed for their proximate composition, antioxidant
properties, total phenolic contents, major/micronutrients and fatty acid profile.

2.2. Materials and methods
2.2.1. Raw material
Amla of Chakaiya, Francis, Kanchan, Nnarendra-7 and Krishna variety were procured from local market of Allahabad, India. The Amla fruits were cleaned thoroughly under tap water to remove adhering dust and wiped with muslin cloth. Fresh fruits of different varieties were evaluated for their physical, chemical and functional
properties. The fleshy part of Chakaiya variety of Amla was grated and seed was separated manually from adhering Amla. Grated Amla shreds were dried in tray drier at 40℃. The dried Amla shreds were ground in laboratory grinder and passed through 0.5
mm screen sieve. Whole Amla seeds were dried in tray drier at 40℃. As the whole seeds dried they broke along the ridges with a crackling sound. The seed coat was separated from the brown seed from each of the broken units. Seed coat and seed were separated manually and both were converted into powder separately as done for Amla shreds. The powder of fruit, seed and seed coat were stored at refrigerated temperature (4℃) for further analysis. Fig 2.1 shows the image of whole seed, seed coat and seed of Chakaiya variety. 

Image result for seed coat and seed of amla

Fig. 2.1 Images of (a) Amla fruit of Chakaiya variety; whole seed; grated Amla;seed coat; and seed.

2.2.2. Methods Analysis of physical properties of Amla.
Different varieties of Amla were measured for their height and width with varnier callipers with least square of 0.02 cm. Number of fragments and shape were analyzed visually. Ten readings were taken for each physical property. Proximate analysis of Amla.
The moisture, crude fat, protein, crude fiber content of the samples were determined by the method of Ranganna, 198612. Available carbohydrate was calculated by balance method. Vitamin C estimation.
Sample solution equivalent to 0.2 mg ascorbic acid mL was prepared in water containing 3% w/v metaphosphoric acid added to increase the stability of ascorbic acid.
It was titrated against standard 2, 6 dichlorophenol indophenol (2,6 DCIP) solution of concentration 0.5 mg mL until the pink color developed completely. The operation was repeated with a blank solution omitting the sample being examined. From the
difference the ascorbic acid in each mg of sample was calculated from the ascorbic acid equivalent to DCIP. Determination of hydration properties.
The water retention property (WRC) and swelling capacity (SWC) of Amla seed and seed coat were analyzed by the methods given by Robertson et al. (2000) with slight modification. For WRC, 1 g of sample was hydrated at room temperature in 30 mL of distilled water and centrifuged at 5000 rpm for 15 min and after 18 h of
equilibration the supernatant was removed. The residue was dried at 105℃. The weight of residue was recorded both prior to drying (fresh weight) at 105℃ and after drying until constant weight was obtained. WRC was calculated as the amount of water
retained by the sample (g/g of dry weight).

WRC = Fresh weight of residue(g) - Dry weight of residue (g) ÷ 
 Dry weight of residue (g).

For SWC determination, 0.1 g of sample was hydrated with 10 mL of distilled water in a calibrated cylinder (15 cm diameter) at 30℃ temperature. After equilibration for 18 h, the bed volume was recorded and expressed as volume/g of original sample dry weight.

SWC = Volume occupied by sample (mL) ÷
 Original sample dry weight (g)

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