Thursday, July 20, 2017

Natural Human Body Cycles.

Your three natural body cycles- what we go through every 24 hours

The universe really is amazing. There are cycles in everything in the universe. There are cycles in weather, the seasons, the economy, wars, moon, sun, animal populations, geological formations, sea, physics, clocks and a million others I don’t have room to mention.
But did you know that your body also has a cycle?
And I am not talking about the obvious, nor am I talking just to the ladies here. This information is important for Everyone, so listen up! If you are not familiar with body cycles yet, so much is about to make sense…
Your body runs on 3 eight-hour cycles per day. Formally referred to as the Circadian Rhythms, and known for thousands of years via Ayurvedic teachings, to me understanding and applying these body clock principles has been the reason behind enjoying easy digestion, keeping my weight from fluctuating, never experiencing fatigue and maximizing my metabolism.

These are the cycles:

    4AM-12PM Elimination
   12PM-8PM Appropriation
    8PM-4AM Assimilation

During the hours between 4AM and 12PM, your body is in the Elimination Cycle. It never stops to work on your digestion and you can still eat or drink or whatever at this time, but understanding that this is the period most important for cleansing and releasing toxins (‘Eliminating’), we can make the right food choices if we are going to eat. It is best to stick to liquids and most hydrating living foods, as we let our body shed the toxins (think how you wake up tired, sweaty, headachie and with bad breath- all are signs of detox symptoms). So if you do choose to eat during this period, it is important to go for anything that will require minimal digestion and support this cleansing cycle, such as fresh fruit or green juices. This is why you often hear experts refer to breakfast as ‘the most important meal of the day’, exactly so you can make a careful choice on what’s light on digestion, not so you can eat the most gigantic feast. You are breaking the fast (break-fast), so do it right or proper elimination won’t get a chance.

“The elimination cycle is without question your greatest ally in the preservation of health and prevention of disease”; “If a blood test was to be taken every hour for 24 hours, it would show that the bloodstream is most heavily burdened with the by-products of metabolism during the hours between 4am-12noon, indicating the stepped up elimination cycle, because it is the blood that carries waste material to the four channels of elimination: bowels, bladder, lungs, and skin”– Harvey & Marilyn Diamond, Fit for Life

During the hours between 12PM and 8PM, your body is in the Appropriation Cycle. During this period, we are most awake, active, present and therefore efficient at digesting, metabolizing and burning through the majority of our heavily concentrated foods. This is why the majority of meals (lunch, dinner and snacks) also occur during this cycle. The most important thing to do during this period however IS NOT to be dictated by the clock or so called ‘norms’ of mealtime, when we are too starving to care what we have for lunch and tend to shove so much food down ourselves too quickly, that by the time the body registers what happened, it is too late and we overeat, get bloated and ‘too tired’ to digest. The most important thing to do then IS to eat only when hungry and in smaller portions, so you give your body plenty of breaks and chances to break down through the food with the least required effort, so it reserves the energy for everything else you need doing, not merely wasting it on digesting your meals.

During the hours between 8PM and 4AM, your body is in the Assimilation Cycle. This is the time you are most likely to be relaxed or sleeping. This period is when all the ‘assimilating’ or absorbing of nutrients and minerals from your food occurs and gets transported to your organs, bones and cells via the blood. It is when all the rebuilding, renewing and healing takes place. It makes sense to eat dinner early, so that the foods you eat are digested and out of the stomach in preparation for this phase. As all the goodness gets drawn from the food for you to strengthen, the remains get ready for Elimination, the start of the next cycle all over again.

Try this for yourself and be mindful of these three cycles for 10 days. Once you learn to pay attention to them, it will become second nature and your body will reap the bounty of benefits.

Would you like to use this article for your website, blog or newsletter? You are most welcome, please add this paragraph at the end:

Tanya Alekseeva is a Wellness Coach who specialises in Raw Food Nutrition and Detoxification options. Tanya works with a variety of clients ranging from corporate organisations through to individuals and schools, to educate and ensure they achieve their most desired wellbeing and ultimate health objectives. She is the founder of Better Raw and Corporate Créme in London, travelling nationally and internationally to provide seminars, workshops, detox programs and one-to-one coaching. Tanya is also an author of various books, and they as well as her DVD ‘Raw Food 101’ are available now on

Your Three Natural Body Cycles: This is known as the circadian rhythms.

File:Biological clock human.svg

File:Biological clock human.svg

00:00 Midnight
02:00 Deepest sleep
04:30 Lowest body temperature*
06:45 Sharpest rise in blood pressure^^
07:30 Melatonin secretion stops (It started from 21:00)
08:30 Bowel movement likely
09:00 Highest testosterone secretion
10:00 High alertness
12:00 Noon
14:30 Best coordination
15:30 Fastest reaction time
17:00 Greatest cardiovascular efficiency and muscle strength
18:30 Highest blood pressure
19:00 Highest body temperature
21:00 Melatonin secretion starts. 
22:30 Bowel movement suppressed
00:00 Midnight
Following day ....

[* What happens to your body when your body temperature drops?
Hypothermia is a dangerously low body temperature. The average normal body temperature is around 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit, or 37 degrees Celsius. If your body temperature drops to just a few degrees lower than this, your blood vessels in your hands, feet, arms, and legs start to get narrower.
Why the human body temperature is 98.6 degrees?

Scientists have found the reason why our body temperature is 98.6° Fahrenheit (37°C). Apparently it's the perfect balance, as it's warm enough to prevent fungal infection but not so hot that we need to eat nonstop to maintain our metabolism.
Is temperature of 38 high?

The normal temperature inside your child's body is usually around 37 degrees Celsius. Your child has a mild fever if their temperature is higher than 38 degrees Celsius. A high fever usually means more than 39 degrees Celsius.]

Natural Body Cycles

Life is a series of cycles of energy production, storage, and discharge. this general cycle defines all living organisms, from one-celled algae to man. All of nature follows the 24-hour cycle of a day. All creatures, from the oyster to the elephant, follow a daily pattern of work and rest, sleep and activity. There are biological rhythms within the body that dictate periods of tissue repair, tissue growth, waste elimination, and so forth. Body temperature, blood pressure, brain activity, hormone levels, and a host of other factors obey this rhythm, which scientists call circadian.

Circadian rhythms are a blend of interaction of an internal clock and external cues of the earth’s magnetism, electrical fields, gravitational fields and cosmic radiation, even the movement of other planets. Each of our twelve acupuncture meridians in our body have a two-hour period of heightened activity, together, totaling 24-hours–the circadian cycle of the earth’s rotation. The body has bio-rhythms of 14-days for the physical, 28-days for the emotional and 33-days for the mental aspects of ourselves. Healing occurs in cycles. Some days the body has a high-energy level and it rebuilds damaged tissues. On such days, we may feel great. On other days, the body must do its detoxification and remove accumulated toxins. When this happens, we may experience low levels of energy or even depression.

Most people lead a lifestyle and follow a diet that inhibits the body in its cyclical work. For instance, when the body is cleansing itself via a cold, people become impatient. They try to suppress the cleansing cycle with drugs or food and the body must abandon its efforts. The body behaves in a sort of roller-coaster fashion as it conducts its detoxification process. One day it may cleanse heavily and we feel like shit. The next day, the toxins have been removed and we feel great. We feel so great, in fact, that the body decides to dig a little deeper and remove some of the older toxins, and then we feel worse.

This is a continuing cycle in the process of healing. Once a certain level of health has been reached, we don’t notice the cycles as much and they cause progressively less discomfort. The body goes through increased detoxification and healing crisis with every change of season. Notice how people seem to get sick at those particular times of the year. Fasting for 7-10 days with each seasonal change is practiced by those who understand the benefit gained from helping the body during these natural times of cleansing.

The Body’s Infinite Wisdom

Your body wants to live forever; it wants to be free from all pain and illness; it actively desires complete healing to take place within it at all times. Your body is your friend and partner in your effort to regain health. The body has the innate capacity, knowledge, and wisdom to heal itself at any time–if it is allowed to do so. The body possesses its own healing ability and the wisdom to direct this ability. The only thing we must do is let the body conduct its work with as little interference as possible. We can furnish it with the highest-quality raw foods when it needs it or abstain from food when it doesn’t desire it. We can exercise and rest the body, and give it fresh air and sunshine.

Other than that, all we can really do is wait patiently and intelligently and not become alarmed by the symptoms of its healing or try to suppress those symptoms--even if we are healing heart disease, cancer, AIDS, or any other degenerative condition. If you have faith and trust in your body’s ability to heal itself, the unpleasant symptoms, which may accompany this healing, become more bearable and are not a source of fear or misgiving. Ultimately, we must let our body perform its health-restoring work at its own pace. The real doctor is within–the body alone is capable of performing all the needed healing functions. The cellular intelligence driving the body is infinite in its capacity. We need not have any fears about its wisdom or ability to restore itself to the highest-possible level of health and well-being. 

Did you know that your body runs to three 8-hour cycles per day?

Like the earth and the moon, sea, and seasons, our bodies have cycles. Our bodies go through these cycles every 24 hours, each and every day.

Once we learn to pay attention to these cycles, our bodies and health will reap the bounty of benefits.

By gearing our daily food intake according to these cycles, as well as correctly combining those foods, we will experience much improved all around health (our real goal) which for most include less fatigue and normalization of your weight ( the bonus)

So now lets learn about these cycles and combinations, as well as how to place them in your life.

Cycle no. 1 –  ELIMINATION (4am-12pm)

This is the time when your body would like to direct most of its energy to the work of cleansing toxins from your body. To not interrupt this work, light eating is the best choice now , as the best way to break your fast (BREAKFAST).

This does not mean a cup of coffee (regular or decaf) and a donut . By light I mean eating the lightest, most perfect food.. Fruit and Fruit Juices  (diluted with  water is best for most)

You see, fruits does not in your stomach. In fact, fruit goes through the stomach and directly to your small intestines.

In this way, there is no diversion of energy from the body’s work of eliminating being used for digestion of food.

You see. when a heavy traditional breakfast is eaten ( eggs, potatoes, grits, bacon, toast, biscuits, waffles, pancakes, french toast, etc), it takes energy away from eliminating  toxins and uses it for digestion of foods just eaten, and proper ELIMINATION IS NEVER ACHIEVED.

The ideal elimination pattern.

Three to five bowel eliminations daily — once upon rising, one after each meal, one before retiring.

When this pattern is not the norm ( and for most, it i not), then over time, it can take its tool on the body.

Eating fruit and drinking fruit juices in the morning (especially the ripe, juicy ones), can provide an easily absorbed food, high in vitamins and minerals. You have also employed the greatest cleanser for your body, as they help to dissolve the often old accumulation of mucus and waste that is along the intestinal walls ( this include small intestines and colon) .

For some, eating fruits only  in the morning may take a while to get used to. Do the best you can. Eat the amount of fruit and/or juice to make you comfortably full.

If  you feel hungry later in the morning, you can have bananas, granola, bran muffins (made with natural sweeteners), or whole grain toast. Keep in mind your objective is to adjust to ONLY FRUIT AND/OR DILUTED FRUIT JUICES IN THE MORNING.

Cycle no. 3 – ASSIMILATION (8pm  – 4am)

During this cycle, the body is now ready to ABSORB THE NUTRIENTS FROM THE FOODS WE HAVE EATEN.

It make sense to  EAT DINER EARLY, o that the food you eat are DIGESTED AND OUT OF THE STOMACH as preparation for this cycle.

If we eat late, we throw ALL our CYCLES OUT OF BALANCE, We are then….


Also remember, some of the worse thing we can do to our bodies, concerning our intake of foods is to…..


On those rare occasions when you eat late, EAT LIGHT; on those rare occasions when you eat a traditional breakfast, still HAVE YOUR FRUIT FIRST.


The following information is invaluable. I first came across it years ago in the  health classic Fit for Life, by Harvey & Marilyn Diamond. Utilizing this knowledge throughout my own healthy LIVING/ RAW-FOOD journey has made all the difference.

Although the body can be eating, digesting, using food and cleaning all at the same time to varying degrees, it has been found that from approximately 4am until noon, the body is cleansing itself (eliminating) – this is why, for example, people wake up with headaches, crusty eyes, furred tongues and so on – this is the debris coming out. It makes most sense for the body to be doing its housecleaning while we are asleep, because it’s then that we are not exerting any extra energy and can let nature take its course.

ELIMINATION-During this first 8 hour period, the best foods we can possibly eat (if we want to) are fruits or fruit, veg or green juices, because they require minimal digestion and are the only foods which have been found not to interfere with this cleansing process. Therefore the ideal scenario is to try and incorporate as much fresh fruit or juice into your morning routine and slowly cut down (and ideally, out) on other items. Basically, as soon as you eat anything else, the cleansing stops. I’m convinced that my keeping to this routine for so long is largely responsible for keeping my weight low and my energy high. And you just feel so clean too!

Harvey states, “The elimination cycle is without question your greatest ally in the prevention of health and prevention of disease” their second book Fit for life, Living Health.
He also explains “ If a blood test were to be taken every hour for 24 hours, it would show that the bloodstream is most heavily burdened with the by-products of metabolism during the hours between 4am-12noon, indicating the stepped up elimination cycle, because it is the blood that carries waste material to the four channels of elimination:the bowels, bladder, lungs, and skin.

APPROPRIATION-The second eight hour cycle, is between noon and 8pm which, when you think about it, is when most of us eat our two main meals of the day – lunch and dinner. This is the time when the body is most efficient at digesting and dealing with foods. It’s also the time when we are burning them up the fastest because we’re at our most active. As long as we are eating according the dictates of our appetite, we should be merrily refuelling and burning, refuelling and burning in a fairly steady and comfortable way, which makes for a really comfortable feeling in the body.

Eating when one is truly hungry can take a bit of getting used to, but is far more enjoyable than eating just because the clock dictates it’s lunchtime. And it makes so much sense!

ASSIMILATION-The third cycle, is the time for utilising the food you have consumed during the day. Assimilation takes place between (approximately) 8pm and 4am, i.e. the time you’re most likely to be relaxed, asleep or least active. During this time the body can get to work drawing all of the goodness out of your food from the day, and working on healing and rebuilding. As this phase starts drawing to a close it leads neatly back into the first cycle, cleansing, as it gets rid of everything it doesn’t need.

Dr John McDougall says “The best sleep is on an empty stomach”

Your Brain: The Missing Manual: The Missing Manual

By Matthew MacDonald

An article from the e-journal of the ESC Council for Cardiology Practice
VOL.8,N°32 - 04 MAY 2010

 J.A. Garcia-Donaire

 J. Segura

Dr. Luis  Ruilope

Dr. César  Cerezo

The availability of techniques for ambulatory blood pressure measurements have shown certain aspects of circadian variability of blood pressure - absence of physiological nocturnal dipping, and/or an early morning surge -  that must be considered decisive influences on target organ damage and long-term prognosis. Proper management of these factors would positively contribute to the cardiovascular prognosis of hypertensive patients.

Topic(s):  Hypertension
Hypertension is one of the most important challenges for public health systems to manage. This relevance is determined by its high prevalence and its association with the risk of cardiovascular and renal disease (1-3). In 2000, approximately a quarter of 
worldwide adult population had hypertension, and this proportion is expected to rise to 29% of the adult population in 2025, which would amount to 1560 million individuals (4). 

Biological rhythms

Current management of hypertensive patients does not often consider or at least gives little importance to the biological rhythms inherent to the disease process. The development of techniques for ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and home-blood pressure measurements has generated a series of questions directly related to the chronobiology of the cardiovascular system (5). In recent years, research evidence highlights the influence of nocturnal blood pressure (BP) values and, more specifically, the absence of a nocturnal dipping and an increased morning surge of blood pressure, on the development of target organ damage and an increased cardiovascular risk (5). 

Nocturnal dip

Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring techniques have expanded our knowledge regarding the circadian rhythms of blood pressure. Several studies suggest a relationship between cardiovascular complications such as acute myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular disease with circadian BP changes (6). In fact, many studies suggest that patients who do not show an appropriate nocturnal dip in blood pressure may develop a variety of disorders associated with increased rates of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality (7-9). Ohkubo et al demonstrated that a diminished nocturnal decline in BP is a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality in the general population (10).

"Non-dipper" individuals

In this regard, Cuspidi et al have shown that the persistence of non-dipper patterns is associated with increased left ventricular mass index, a thicker interventricular septum, and a larger diameter of the left atrium and aortic root in a group of 375 previously untreated hypertensive patients (7). Similarly, non-dipper hypertensive patients show a greater degree of insulin resistance and lower levels of adiponectin, compared to dipper hypertensives (8). These non-dipper hypertensive patients had a more severe impairment of endothelial function as manifested by a reduced ability of endothelium-dependent vasodilation and mediated by a decrease in nitric oxide release (9). In fact, reverse dipper hypertensive patients showed wider pulse pressure at night than any other group, suggesting the potential role of arterial stiffness as an underlying mechanism of impaired cardiovascular risk (11).

Long-term prognosis 

All these changes determine a worsened long-term prognosis for non-dipper. In a meta-analysis including data of 3468 patients from four prospective studies, the dipping pattern and the night-day BP ratio significantly and independently predicted mortality and cardiovascular events in hypertensive patients without a history of major cardiovascular disease (12). In diabetic patients, the loss of the physiological circadian pattern is associated with increased mortality in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes (13). 

Early morning surge

Moreover, there is growing evidence linking an early morning rise in blood pressure with increased cardiovascular risk (14). Although the mechanisms responsible for this relationship are not well known, several factors contribute to hemodynamic and neurohumoral blood pressure (6,14,15). It has been described in patients with coronary disease in which myocardial ischemia may appear transiently in the first two hours after waking (16). Similarly, in reviewing a group of 1167 patients with ischemic stroke, early morning stroke onset as opposed to strokes at any other times of day, have been observed more frequently (17) and the incidence of stroke is directly related to the magnitude of the morning rise in blood pressure (18). Similarly, several meta-analyses have confirmed the relationship between cardiovascular complications (myocardial infarction (19) or stroke (20)) and strokes occuring at highest incidence in the early hours of the morning.


1. Neaton JD, Wentworth D. Serum cholesterol blood pressure, cigarette smoking, and death from coronary heart disease. Overall findings and differences by age for 316.099 white men. Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial Research Group. Arch Intern Med 1992; 152: 56-64. 
2. Prospective Studies Collaboration. Age-specific relevance of usual blood pressure to vascular mortality: a meta-analysis of individual data for one million adults in 61 prospective studies. Lancet 2002; 360: 1903-1913.  
3. Weiner DE, Tighiouart H, Amin MG, Stark PC, MacLeod B, Griffith JL, Salem DN, Levey AS, Sarnak MJ. Chronic kidney disease as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality: a pooled analysis of community-based studies. J Am Soc Nephrol 2004;15: 1307-1315.
4. Kearney PM, Whelton M, Reynolds K, Muntner P, Whelton P, He J. Global burden of hypertension: analysis of worldwide data. Lancet 2005; 365: 217-223.
5. Hassler C, Burnier M. Circadian variations in blood pressure: implications for chronotherapeutics. Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 2005; 5: 7-15.
6. Giles T. Relevance of blood pressure variation in the circadian onset of cardiovascular events. J Hypertens 2005; 23 (Suppl 1): S35-S39.
7. Cuspidi C, Meani S, Salerno M, Valerio C, Fusi V, Severgnini B, et al. Cardiovascular target organ damage in essential hypertensives with or without reproducible nocturnal fall in blood pressure. J Hypertens 2004; 22: 273-280.
8. Della Mea P, Lupia M, Bandolin V, Guzzon S, Sonino N, Vettor R, et al. Adiponectin, insulin resistance, and left ventricular structure in dipper and nondipper essential hypertensive patients. Am J Hypertens 2005; 18: 30-35.
9. Higashi Y, Nakagawa K, Kimura M, Noma K, Hara K, Sasaki S, et al. Circadian variation of blood pressure and endothelial function in patients with essential hypertension: a comparison of dippers and non-dippers. J Am Coll Cardiol 2002; 40: 2039-2043.
10. Ohkubo T, Hozawa A, Yamaguchi J, Kikuya M, Ohmori K, Michimata M, et al. Prognostic significance of the nocturnal decline in blood pressure in individuals with and without high 24-h blood pressure: the Ohasama study. J Hypertens 2002; 20: 2183-2189.
11. Jerrard-Dunne P, Mahmud A, Feely J. Circadian blood pressure variation: relationship betweendipper status and measures of arterial stiffness. J Hypertens 2007; 25: 1233-1239.
12. Fagard RH, Thijs L, Staessen JA, Clement DL, De Buyzere ML, De Bacquer DA. Night-day blood pressure ratio and dipping pattern as predictors of death and cardiovascular events in hypertension. J Hum Hypertens 2009; 23: 645-653. 
13. Sturrock ND, George E, Pound N, Stevenson J, Peck GM, Sowter H. Non-dipping circadian blood pressure and renal impairment are associated with increased mortality in diabetes mellitus. Diabet Med 2000; 17: 360-364.
14. Weber MA. The 24-hour blood pressure pattern: does it have implications for morbidity and mortality? Am J Cardiol 2002; 89(suppl 2A):27A–33A.
15. Kario K. Morning surge and variability in blood pressure: a new therapeutic target? Hypertension 2005; 45: 485-486.
16. Rocco MB, Barry J, Campbell S, Nabel E, Cook EF, Goldman L, et al. Circadian variation of transient myocardial ischemia in patients with coronary artery disease. Circulation 1987; 75:395–400. 
17. Marler JR, Price TR, Clark GL, Muller JE, Robertson T, Mohr JP, et al. Morning increase in onset of ischemic stroke. Stroke 1989; 20:473–476. 
18. Kario K, Pickering TG, Umeda Y, Hoshide S, Hoshide Y, Morinari M, et al. Morning surge in blood pressure as a predictor of silent and clinical cerebrovascular disease in elderly hypertensives: a prospective study. Circulation 2003; 107: 1401–1406. 
19. Cohen MC. Meta-analysis of the morning excess of acute myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death. Am J Cardiol 1997; 79: 1512–1516. 
20. Elliott WJ. Circadian variation in the timing of stroke onset – a meta-analysis. Stroke 1998; 29:992–996.

VolumeNumber: Vol8 N°31

Introduction to Healthcare in a Flash!: An Interactive, Flash Card Approach Page 241

By Marilyn Turner 

Wednesday, July 19, 2017

Monday, July 17, 2017

Water Metabolism


•Powerful solvent for ionic & neutral molecules.
•Dissociation of macromolecules of the cell along with dilute salt solutions.
•Influence on the structural & functional     components of the cell.
•Cooling of the body by evaporation of moisture in the lungs &from the skin.

•Most abundant compound in the body (65-95% of body weight)

Disorders of water and sodium homeostasis are very common problems encountered in clinical medicine. Disorders of water metabolism are divided into hyperosmolar and hypoosmolar states, with hyperosmolar disorders characterized by a deficit of body water in relation to body solute and hypoosmolar disorders characterized by an excess of body water in relation to total body solute. This article briefly reviews the physiology of hyperosmolar and hypoosmolar syndromes, then focuses on a discussion of the pathophysiology, evaluation, and treatment of specific pre- and postoperative disorders of water metabolism in patients with pituitary lesions.

Normal Physiology of Hypothalamic Pituitary Regulation.
The anterior pituitary is a complex heterogeneous gland that exerts a central role in the integration of several regulatory systems. Its six key hormones affect peripheral glands or target tissues and are essential for reproduction, growth and development, metabolism, adaptation to external environmental changes, and stress. Each of the pituitary hormones is regulated by the central nervous system through neuroendocrine pathways involving the hypothalamus, by feedback effects from peripheral target gland hormones, and by intrapituitary mechanisms. The hormones are secreted in a pulsatile manner, which is distinct for each hormone and reflects the influence of its individual neuroendocrine control mechanisms.
Water and salt metabolism.

Author(s) : STANDARD, S.
Author Affiliation : New York.
Journal article : Surg. Qynecol. Obstet. Internat. Abst. Surg. 1938 Vol.67 pp.301-320
Abstract : The literature on water and salt metabolism is reviewed. lesions of the gastro-intestinal tract are classified into pylorio obstruction producing dehydration and alkalosis, duodenal fistula producing dehydration and acidosis, and intestinal obstruction or fistula producing varying degrees of dehydration and, hypochloraemia without disturbance of acid base balance. The methods available for replacement of water and chloride are detailed and indications for their use discussed. Parenteral administration of fluids and, salt has reduced the mortality rate considerably in intestinal obstruction. A. Lyall

Chapter 1

Sodium and Water Metabolism.

Disorders of salt and water homeostasis result in a
variety of clinical syndromes such as dehydration,
oedema, hyponatraemia and hypernatraemia.
Patients with these disorders require careful
clinical evaluation prior to appropriate therapy, and
this evaluation will not be satisfactory unless the
clinician has an adequate grasp of the
physiological principles involved.

Furthermore it should be emphasised that in these
subjects the most important investigation is the
clinical examination, particularly the history and
the evaluation of the patient's hydration status.
Diagnosis is often made on clinical grounds and
laboratory tests should be used to confirm a
clinical impression and to uncover specific
abnormalities such as hypernatraemia, renal
failure and the like.

A number of definitions, which may be new to the
reader, are used throughout the chapter and are
appropriately dealt with in the body of the text. Two
terms which recur are osmolality and tonicity which
require some explanation.


The osmolality of a fluid is a measure of the total
number of particles (ions, molecules) present in
solution. It differs from the closely related term,
osmolarity, in that it is expressed in millimoles per
kilogram (concentrations per mass) of solvent
(water in the case of plasma) whilst osmolarity is
expressed in millimoles per litre (concentrations
per volume) of solution. Both osmolality and
osmolarity are units of measurement of osmotic
effects; however, osmolality is a thermo-
dynamically more precise expression than
osmolarity because:

• Solution concentrations expressed on a weight
basis are temperature independent, while those
based on volume (e.g., osmolarity) will vary with
temperature in a manner dependent on the thermal
expansion of the solution.

• It is the osmolal, not the osmolar, concentration
which exerts an effect across the cell membrane
and which is controlled by homeostatic mechanisms.

This is because of the volume occupied by
the solid phase of plasma (made up mainly of its
protein and lipid content) which in normal plasma
is about 7% of the plasma volume. Dissolved
particles are confined to the aqueous phase of

A one osmolal solution is defined to contain 1
osmole/kg water; however, the term milliosmole/kg
(mOsm/kg) which should have been used for the
relatively low osmolalities of physiological fluids is
not an SI unit and mmol/kg is recommended to be
used in its stead. The plasma osmolality is normally
295±5 mmol/kg.

As we shall see later, the distribution of water
across biological membranes separating different
compartments depends on the concentration
difference of particles between the two
compartments. On a per unit volume basis there
will be a larger number of small molecular weight
particles which will exert a greater osmotic effect,
as compared to bigger particles.

Thus the major contributors to plasma osmolality
are  Na+, K+ and their associated anions
(mainly CI" and HCCy), urea and glucose.
Plasma proteins, because of their massive sizes,
exert a relatively insignificant osmotic effect,
individually or as a group. In practice, plasma
osmolality can either be measured or calculated
(see below).

Measured plasma osmolality. This is obtained
using osmometers which measure colligative
properties such as freezing point depression or
vapour pressure. It gives a measure of the total
osmolality of the solution — the sum of the
osmotic effects exerted by all the ions and
molecules present in the solution across a
membrane which, unlike biological ones, is
permeable to water.

Calculated plasma osmolarity. As sodium is the
major cation of the extracellular fluid (interstitial fluid
or plasma) its osmolarity can be roughly estimated
from the following equation:

Calculated ECF osmolarity (mmol/L) =

2 x [Na+]* + [urea]* + [glucose]*

* (plasma analyte values expressed in mmol/L)

Friday, July 14, 2017

Human Body Temperature


The normal human body temperature oral (under the tongue) should be about 36.8°C (98.2°F), while the normal internal human body temperature (rectal, vaginal) should be at about 37.0°C (98.6°F).

Values of at least 0.5°C (32.9°F) above said temperature can be considered fever while temperatures of 1-2°C (33.8 - 35.6°F)  below normal temperature are known as 'Hypothermia' (body temperature too low).

Your body temperature of 37.7°C (99.9°F) is high and might be fever.

Image result for Your body temperature of 37.7°C (99.9°F) is high and might be fever.

A temperature slightly above normal to a temperature of 100.4°F (38°C) is called a low grade fever and usually not a cause for worry unless it continues to rise. A temperature that is higher than a low grade fever should be monitored and a fever of 104°F (40°C) or higher can be dangerous and a doctor should be called immediately. A high fever can cause convulsions and delusions, especially in infants, children and the elderly.

A fever is actually one of our body's healing defense mechanisms. When we get sick and get a fever, our body is actually trying to kill what made us sick in the first place. The most common causes of a fever are illnesses due to a virus or bacteria. Since viruses and bacteria cannot live at higher temperatures, the body's immune system uses fever to stop the illness. In other words, that fever that makes us feel so miserable is actually trying to heal us by killing what is making us sick. For this reason, it is usually best to let a low grade fever run its course, unless there are other severe medical symptoms. Drink a glass of water at 90 minutes interval.

Fever 37.7°C (99.9°F)? - Yes, you might have fever!

Image result for Your body temperature of 37.7°C (99.9°F) is high and might be fever.

 Image result for Your body temperature of 37.7°C (99.9°F) is high and might be fever.

This same average temperature taken in the rectum is higher than in the mouth at approximately 0.5 degree Celsius or +/- 1 degree Fahrenheit.


Temperature Conversion - Fahrenheit to Celsius
The metric system uses the Celsius scale to measure temperature. However, temperatures are still measured on the Fahrenheit scale in the U.S.

Water freezes at 0o Celsius and boils at 100o Celsius which is a difference of 100o. Water freezes at 32o Fahrenheit and boils at 212o Fahrenheit which is a difference of 180o. Therefore each degree on the Fahrenheit scale is equal to 100/180 or 5/9 degrees on the Celsius scale.

How to convert Fahrenheit temperatures to Celsius
Subtract 32o to adjust for the offset in the Fahrenheit scale.
Multiply the result by 5/9.
Example: convert 98.6o Fahrenheit to Celsius. 
98.6 - 32 = 66.6 
66.6 * 5/9 = 333/9 = 37o C.
There is a mental math method to approximate the Fahrenheit to Celsius conversion. The ratio of 5/9 is approximately equal to 0.55555....

How to approximate the conversion of Fahrenheit temperatures to Celsius with mental math.
Subtract 32o to adjust for the offset in the Fahrenheit scale.
Divide the Celsius temperature by 2 (multiply by 0.5).
Take 1/10 of this number (0.5 * 1/10 = 0.05) and add it from the number above.
Example: convert 98.6o F to Celsius. 
98.6 - 32 = 66.6 
66.6 * 1/2 = 33.3 
33.3 * 1/10 = 3.3 
33.3 + 3.3 = 36.6 which is an approximation of the Celsius temperature
Note: This lesson includes temperatures that use negative numbers. Negative numbers follow a pattern that is opposite of positive numbers. The number -20 is smaller than the number -10. Example of counting with negative and positive numbers: -5, -4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

Example of converting negative Fahrenheit temperatures to Celsius
Convert -4o F to Celsius.
-4 - 32 = -36
-36 * 5/9 = -180/9 = -20o C

Image result for Your body temperature of 37.7°C (99.9°F) is high and might be fever.
A fever occurs when the body sets the core temperature to a higher temperature , through the action of the pre-optic region of the anterior hypothalamus. For example, in response to a bacterial or viral infection, the body will purposely raise its temperature so the white blood cells can function at optimal in killing the invaders. The body declares WAR! So the high temperature. After the victory, white blood cells production reduced, so is the core temperature. Back to normalcy, 37° C.

Thursday, July 13, 2017

Water Therapy?

Water therapy essentially is drinking water, especially when first getting up in the morning.

Water is important in hydrating the body; every cell needs water. Dr. Fereydoon Batmanghelidj discovered the healing powers of water and the link between dehydration and chronic illness 17 years ago. He was then serving a jail sentence as a political prisoner in Iran.

Whether this is therapy or is just stating the importance of drinking water is debatable. Although the Dr. F. Batmanghelidj feels it treats many diseases.

Be Careful the Next Time You Drink Tap Water

Did you know…that drinking water with fluoride lowers IQ? The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) categorizes fluoride as a “chemical having substantial evidence of developmental neuro-toxicity.”

This classification is backed by 24 studies linking fluoride exposure to lower I.Q in children, 3 studies connecting fluoride exposure to dysfunctional neuro-behavorial development, and 100 animal studies associating fluoride exposure to impaired cognitive function.

Unsafe drinking water is not just a concern of third world countries; the United States heavily fluoridates its water. In fact, 70% of U.S. public drinking water supplies contain dangerous levels of fluoride lowers IQ levels.

One measurable side effect of fluoridation is dental fluorosis, a condition in which tooth enamel does not properly develop because of overexposure to fluoride. Dental fluorosis can manifest as white spots, stains, and deep grooves in the tooth. Alarmingly, 41% of American children between the ages of 12 and 15 have some form of dental fluorosis, an indication that fluoride levels in water are not safe.

Dental fluorosis provides visual proof that fluoride is a toxin, and it is logical to assume that fluoride’s toxic effects do more than just damage developing teeth.

Despite numerous studies highlighting the damage fluoride lowers IQ, inflicts on developing brains, health agencies in the United States and other fluoridating countries refuse to lend credibility to the findings. They have criticized the methodology of the studies, the majority of which have been conducted in China, but fail to conduct studies of their own to either refute or validate the claims.

Take for instance a highly publicized study of 512 children between 8 to 13 years living in 2 Chinese villages. Researchers ruled out lead exposure and iodine deficiency as possible causes of reduced IQ. They did not study children with a history of brain damage or disease, and none of the participants consumed brink tea, a beverage high in fluoride lowers IQ.

Neither village was exposed to fluoride pollution from industrial causes such as coal burning, thereby allowing researchers to zero in on water fluoridation as the primary culprit. Results showed that 28% of children in areas with low levels of fluoride in the drinking water scored IQ levels in the normal to high range, whereas only 8% of children in areas with high levels of fluoridated water exhibited normal to high IQs. In high-fluoride neighborhoods, 15% of children had scores reflecting mental retardation versus 6% of children in low-fluoride communities.

Proponents of fluoride will argue that the Chinese children were exposed to fluoride-enhanced drinking water at much higher levels than fluoridated water in the U.S. Paul Connett, Ph.D, director of the Fluoride Action Network refutes this argument, claiming, “the levels of the fluoride in the community where the lowered IQs were recorded were lower than the EPA’s so-called ‘safe’ drinking water standard for fluoride of 4 ppm and far too close for comfort to the levels used in artificial fluoridation programs (0.7 – 1.2 ppm).”

Experts such as Arvid Carlsson, Nobel laureate in medicine/physiology, advocate against exposing infants to fluoride levels greater than that found in breast milk. Unfortunately, infants fed formula reconstituted with fluoridated tap water are exposed to 250 times more fluoride than the amount found in mother’s milk. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has recommended lowering the fluoride level given to infants to 0.7 ppm, but this level is still 175 times more than the level of fluoride in breast milk!

Having fluoride exposure and seeing that fluoride lowers IQ is just one of the effects. Sixteen animal studies have found that fluoride damages the hippocampus, an area of the brain responsible for forming new memories and retrieving old ones.

One animal study found that 1 ppm of fluoride prompted morphological changes in rats’ brains and kidneys, increased the presence of aluminum in the brain, and led to the formation of beta-amyloid deposits, a primary cause of Alzheimer’s disease.

Upon reviewing 5 IQ studies, the National Research Council (NRC) concluded: “it is apparent that fluorides have the ability to interfere with the functions of the brain and the body by direct and indirect means.”

With the evidence mounting, why do countries such as the United States continue to implement fluoridation programs? History suggests that health agencies are more inclined to protect their fluoridation programs than the minds of their youth. One of the first animal studies published in the United States resulted in the firing of its lead author from the Forsyth Dental Center, a not-so-subtle warning to stop the case against fluoride lowers IQ.

Statistics show that the rates of Alzheimer’s, Autism and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are steadily rising. While we may not know the exact causes of these brain impairments, we can safely assume that overexposure to toxins such as fluoride may have a significant impact on brain health.

To ensure optimal brain development avoid drinking tap water. You can further protect the health of your brain by adding 35% food grade H2O2 to your drinking water.

If you mean drinking a gutful of water in the morning, also known as Water cure (therapy), it's a pre-scientific practice. There's no reason to think it helps with much, though it's probably relatively harmless.

“Water is nectar and medicine; it cures all the diseases, Says Veda”

“Water energy is one of the healing energies of cosmic energy.”

Water has tremendous energy referred to as the God of water (jal). Water is the energy of God. No one can survive without water. Water heals all the living being. Indian sages prayed the lord of water to kindly feed the humanity with the “medicinal water” (“jal oshadhi”) to get the food, health, pleasure, bliss and strength, as a mother feeds her infants, Says Rig Veda.

Water is the second important element among the five elements which constitutes the microcosm or a human being. ¾ components of the universe, earth and human body is water only. No activity, whether physical or religious is successful without the water. All the herbs grow in the water and all the herbs are in

All the herbs grow in the water and all the herbs are in the water as well, says Vedas. Water is a life force and God blessings for living beings. Therefore, it is essential to intake the water and avoids the wastage of water.

Spiritual Value of Water

1. Not only, mental or physical, but the spiritual value of water is also very high. No one can depart from this world without drinking divine water. Hence, holy water is offered to the person leaving the world.

2. Not only the body but also soul needs water to leave the attachment from the body and therefore the bones or ashes of the departed body are offered to Holy Goddess Ganga.

3. Goddess Ganga came on the earth from the heaven to give peace and bliss to the people living on the earth and going to depart from the earth both.

4. In various occasions people take bath in holy Ganga to clean their sins.

5. Some people wish to live near to rivers to get emotional healing from water. Breathing and living near to rivers and lakes emotionally heals people from stress, anxiety and depressions.

Get to know some important tips related to the water that must be followed by everyone to keep body fit and healthy:

Water Therapy

“Water energy is one of the healing energies of cosmos. Water is the enemy of diseases. It has great potential to cure all the diseases, Says Veda”

Water has tremendous energy referred to as the God of water (jal). Water is the energy of God. No one can survive without it. Water heals all the living being. Indian sages prayed the lord of water to kindly feed the humanity with the “medicinal water” (“jal oshadhi”) to get the food, health, pleasure, bliss and strength, as a mother feeds her infants, Says – Rig Veda.

Water is the second important element among the five elements which constitutes the microcosm or a human being. ¾ components of the universe, earth and human body is water only. No activity, whether physical and religious is successful without the water.

All the herbs grow in the water and all the herbs are in the water as well, says Vedas. Water is a life force and blessing for living beings. Therefore, it is essential to intake the water and avoids the wastage of water. Some important tips related to water, given below need to be followed by everyone to keep body fit and healthy:

1. Ushapan

Drinking morning water or “Ushapan”, stored in the copper jug, without washing your mouth is alike nectar. It strengthens immunity system of the body and keeps away various diseases.

“If you have faith Ganga is mother, she will care and love you, if you have faith Ganga is water, she is only water for you”        – Mamta Rajshree  
2. How to Drink Water

Always drink water in the comfortable sitting posture to keep away knee pain.
Drinking lukewarm water in the morning prevents arthritis.

Always drink water by small sips similar to birds and other animals.

3. Eye Bath

Eye bath or splashing fresh water on the eyes after filling your mouth with the water is good for the eyesight.

4. Don’t Drink Water Immediately after Eating Food

Don’t drink water immediately after eating food to prevent the body from all the diseases which occurs due to indigestion.
Drink water before taking food or after 40 minutes of eating your food.

5. Water Physical Therapy

Water cures, various diseases like cold, cough, sinusitis, constipation, arthritis, throat ache, lung ailments, liver problems, skin diseases, hair troubles, stress, anxiety, mental disorders, back pain, migraine, diabetes and many more.
Water cures fever. During the fever drink a little water in small intervals. Keep wet cloth strip on the forehead to remove temperature during fever.
Water gives strength to the body. Drink a glass of water to get energy.
Water cures arthritis. Drink lukewarm water empty stomach in the morning to cure arthritis.
Drink fresh or lukewarm water in accordance to the weather and to cure cold and cough. Don’t drink cold water of freeze.

6. Water is Nectar for all the Living Beings

Not only living beings, but trees and plants also get life from the water

7. Best Body Cleaner

Water is the best body cleaner. Drink minimum 8 to 10 glasses of water in a day to get shine on your face. Water is a beauty drink.

8. Bare Feet Walk on the Wet Grass

Bare feet morning walk on the wet grass increase life force, cures eyes, removes stress and anxiety.

Bare feet walking on the fresh snow fall cures tooth ache and cracked heels.

Walking on Snow Fall.

Bare feet walking in the water cures the trouble of painful urination and also cures urinary tract infection (UTI) infection, Says “Akhanda Jyoti”. This exercise is good in the summer season only.

9. Hip Bath

Hip bath (Hindi: Kati Snana) gives relief from various ailments such as High blood pressure, Asthma, Paralytic attack, Jaundice, Anemia, vertigo and many more.
Hip Bath: Filled a tub with water and sit in the tub. Keep your legs outside the tub. Water should be till the navel point only.

10. Water Massage Therapy

Dip a clean towel in the hot water, squeeze the towel and keep the towel on your head after doing oil massage of the head. It gives strength to the roots of the hairs and stops the hair fall.

11. Cold Water Therapy

Dip a cloth in cold water, squeeze the cloth and keep it on the part of the body from where blood is coming out due to injury. It stops blood flow immediately and gives relief.
Cold water cures burning organs too.

12. Hot Water Therapy

Boil water and take steam through nose. It is very effective to cure troubles related to cold, cough, bronchitis and sinus.

A water cure in the therapeutic sense is a course of medical treatment by hydrotherapy.Water therapy is helpful in curing diseases without using medicine. You just have to drink 1.5 liter of water each day and follow simple instructions to get rid of terrible diseases. It is a natural remedy for most diseases.

Instructions for following the water therapy

~You can prevent and even get rid of health problems by only drinking water. All you have to do is strictly follow these instructions.

~Drink 1.5 liters or 5-6 glasses of water as soon as you get up in the morning. You can wash your face and brush your teeth after drinking water.

~Start with drinking 3-4 glasses of water if you are unable to drink 5-6 glasses of water in the beginning.

~Avoid taking alcoholic beverages the previous night.

~Avoid eating or having any other drink one hour before and after drinking water in morning.

~Drink water thrice a day if you are suffering from Arthritis or Rheumatism. You should drink 1.5 liters of water each time. You should continue this routine for one week. After one week you can drink 1.5 liter twice a day till the disease is cured.

~Consult your doctor to find out whether water therapy will suit your body or not if you are ill or are already having a health problem.

Benefits of water therapy

~Water therapy is so simple that it does not require expert supervision or professional guidance. Have a quick look at benefits that can be gained with the help of water therapy. It will almost feel like water is a magical drink.

~Helps detoxify your body through sweat and urine.

~Helps you get glowing and healthy skin.

~Helps maintain body temperature.

~Help expelling waste products from the body.

~Water therapy helps to control anemia, rheumatism, general paralysis, obesity, arthritis, sinusitis, tachycardia, giddiness, cough, leukemia, bronchitis, meningitis, hyper acidity, dysentery, gastroenteritis, uterus cancer, rectal piodapse, eye-disease, ophthalmic hemorrhage, irregular menstruation, laryngitis, headache and many other diseases.

~Helps control constipation in 1 day, acidity in 2 days, diabetes in 7 days, cancer in 4 weeks, pulmonary TB in 3 months, gastric in 10 days and Blood Pressure & hypertension in 4 weeks.

I consider water therapy that type of therapy where one gets into water that is warm and soaks for the benefits of this water, itself. When one gets into a whirlpool for relaxation this is the most common form of water therapy, known. Soaking in warm water that is also moving can be very beneficial to the muscles of ones body, especially if there is soreness in certain areas of the body. It can also be a very relaxing form of therapy for the person, it relieves tension from the person in the water. The main thing to remember, is not to stay in the water for very long periods of time, otherwise, one will become very dizzy upon getting out of the water, possibly causing injury to that individual. I have done this on occasion. If this does happen all benefits of the therapy are lost. When done correctly it can be very rewarding to you. It feels good!

I find this to be a great question to consider in view of Dr. Luc Montagnier’s recent studies. Water Memory (Documentary of 2014 about Nobel Prize laureate Luc Montagnier) My on-going question is what the ramifications are for digital biology and digital medicine when we determine how often the water molecules in the human body are replaced. Some say every 16 days … others longer. Irrespective of the current understanding, the question is indeed compelling. (Watch Youtube click here

Whirlpool Therapy or Water Therapy as you put it is the combination of both heated and cold water baths that help people suffering from chronic pain and many other disorders. Its also become very common in the sports medicine world for its benefits like increased muscle recovery and more. 

So after years of working in physical therapy, I recently became a patient myself. 20 years of yoga practice and 10 years as a massage therapist had gifted me with tendonitis in both wrists. Suffering from chronic wrist pain, I was a little skeptical when my doctor suggested a physical therapist specializing in sports medicine. I just didn’t think there was much they could do for me. 4 months later, I’m stoked to report, I’m primarily pain free!

One of my favorite modalities my physical therapist used was a therapeutic whirlpool. When he first suggested it, visions of my gym’s scary hot-tub filled my head. Luckily he set me straight and introduced me to what would become my new best friend; the therapeutic whirlpool.

Whitehall Hi-Boy Therapeutic Whirlpool
Standard Table Top Whirlpool for Physical Therapy

Here’s the low-down on Therapeutic Whirlpool Treatment

The therapeutic whirlpool I used was big enough for me to put my hands in (although they do make them big enough for your entire body) and my pt encouraged me to gently stretch and move while the water was moving. What I loved about it was it was extremely gentle on my wrists, but my range of motion always improved and my pain decreased. And who doesn’t love being able to pretend they’re getting a spa treatment at their physical therapist’s office?

Now what’s cool about the whirlpool is it’s versatile in its use depending on your pt goals, it all comes down to the temperature from the water. Warm water will help increase your circulation, while cold water helps decrease inflammation and swelling. My favorite though was the contrast bath. The contrast bath uses both a warm and cold bath. You spend a minute or two in each bath and switch back and forth for about 20 minutes. Theoretically this creates a “pumping” effect: rapidly opening and closing the arteries, which helps decrease swelling significantly. All I know is I experienced greater range of motion after the contrast bath and was able to then do the physical therapy exercises given to me to rehab my wrist without pain.

I loved the whirlpool so much especially how gentle it was I even recommended it to my sister who suffers from Arthritis. This modality is also great for anyone suffering from a fracture, plantar fasciitis, sprains, and tendonitis or even to treat wounds and scabbing.

So there you have it, the beginning of my love affair with whirlpool therapy. As your physical therapist if they offer it as part of their treatment, because it rocks.  

Water therapy is drinking water first thing in the morning even before you brush your teeth and not eating anything for 1 hour after that.

The other Health Benefits of drinking water are:

It keeps your body hydrated.
It keeps your skin glowing.
It provides nutrients to the cells in your body.
Drinking 8 to 10 glasses of water keeps you healthy.
It helps in weight loss.
It helps in digestion.
It is good for diabetes.
As 70 percent of the earth is covered with water so is our body.

Absorbing warm water is one of the most seasoned types of option therapy, and there's justifiable reason motivation behind why this practice has stood the test of time. Research has indicated warm water therapy works ponders for a wide range of musculoskeletal conditions, including fibromyalgia, joint inflammation and low back agony. "The examination demonstrates our predecessors hit the nail on the head. It improves you feel. It makes the joints looser.

Water therapy or hydrotherapy has been used since Egyptian times to treat physical problems. By swimming there is low impact on the joints and water gives our muscles something to push against.

Try water aerobics your muscles will have quite a workout!

The Romans used it too. Saunas open up the pores and cleanse the skin of impurities

It's practiced today in Iceland and has many health benefits like increasing circulation of blood flow. By going from hot to cold is very invigorating. And may even increase lifespan!

Water therapy generally means
-Drinking 8-9glasses of water everyday.
-Taking only water for 2-3 days.
-Taking hot or cold water bath.
-Shower cold water or hot water according to illness.
-Sitting on warm water tub for fomentation.
-Ice cold fomentation in case of injury.

All these come under water therapy .