Tuesday, March 21, 2017

Cells are the basic units of life

Principal structures of an animal cellCytoplasm surrounds the cell’s specialized structures, or organelles. Ribosomes, the sites of protein synthesis, are found free in the cytoplasm or attached to the endoplasmic reticulum, through which materials are transported throughout the cell. Energy needed by the cell is released by the mitochondria. The Golgi complex, stacks of flattened sacs, processes and packages materials to be released from the cell in secretory vesicles. Digestive enzymes are contained in lysosomes. Peroxisomes contain enzymes that detoxify dangerous substances. The centrosome contains the centrioles, which play a role in cell division. The microvilli are fingerlike extensions found on certain cells. Cilia, hairlike structures that extend from the surface of many cells, can create movement of surrounding fluid. The nuclear envelope, a double membrane surrounding the nucleus, contains pores that control the movement of substances into and out of the nucleoplasm. Chromatin, a combination of DNA and proteins that coil into chromosomes, makes up much of the nucleoplasm. The dense nucleolus is the site of ribosome production.

  Cell system: Cell, in biology, the basic membrane-bound unit that contains the fundamental molecules of life and of which all living things are composed. A single cell is often a complete organism in itself, such as a bacterium or yeast. Other cells acquire specialized functions as they mature. These cells cooperate with other specialized cells and become the building blocks of large multicellular organisms, such as animals and humans. Although cells are much larger than atoms, they are still very small. The smallest known cells are a group of tiny bacteria called mycoplasmas; some of these single-celled organisms are spheres about ...

Human body: Human anatomy and physiology are treated in many different articles. For detailed discussions of specific tissues, organs, and systems, see human blood; cardiovascular system; digestive system, human; endocrine system, human; renal system; skin; human muscle system; nervous system; reproductive system, human; respiration, human; sensory reception, human; skeletal system, human. For a description of how the body develops, from conception through old age, see aging; growth; prenatal development 
Vintage anatomy charts of the human body showing the skeletal and muscle systems.
Biology, study of living things and their vital processes. The field deals with all the physicochemical aspects of life. The modern tendency toward cross-disciplinary research and the unification of scientific knowledge and investigation from different fields has resulted in significant overlap of the field of biology with other scientific disciplines. Modern principles of other fields—chemistry, medicine, and physics, for example—are integrated with those of biology in areas such as biochemistry, biomedicine, and biophysics.
Biology is subdivided into separate branches for convenience of study, though all the subdivisions are interrelated by basic principles.
Bacteria, singular bacterium, any of a group of microscopic single-celled organisms that live in enormous numbers in almost every environment on Earth, from deep-sea vents to deep below Earth’s surface to the digestive tracts of humans.Bacteria lack a membrane-bound nucleus and other internal structures and are therefore ranked among the unicellular life-forms called prokaryotes. Prokaryotes are the dominant living creatures on Earth, having been present for perhaps three-quarters of Earth history and having adapted to almost all available ecological habitats. As a group, they display exceedingly diverse metabolic capabilities and can use almost any organic compound.
Mycoplasma, any bacterium in the genus Mycoplasma. The name mycoplasma has also been used to denote any species in the class mollicutes or any genus in the order Mycoplasmatales. Mycoplasmas are among the smallest of bacterial organisms. The cell varies from a spherical or pear shape (0.3 to 0.8 micrometres [0.0000117 to 0.0000312 inch]) to that of a slender branched filament (up to 150 micrometres [0.00585 inch]). Mycoplasma species are mostly facultatively anaerobic, colonial microorganisms that lack cell walls. Mycoplasma species are parasites of joints and the mucous membranes lining the respiratory, genital, or digestive tracts of ruminants, carnivores, rodents...
Blood, fluid that transports oxygen and nutrients to the cells and carries away carbon dioxide and other waste products. Technically, blood is a transport liquid pumped by the heart (or an equivalent structure) to all parts of the body, after which it is returned to the heart to repeat the process. Blood is both a tissue and a fluid. It is a tissue because it is a collection of similar specialized cells that serve particular functions. These cells are suspended in a liquid matrix (plasma), which makes the blood a fluid. If blood flow ceases, death will occur . (Details study click here)
Human cardiovascular system, organ system that conveys blood through vessels to and from all parts of the body, carrying nutrients and oxygen to tissues and removing carbon dioxide and other wastes. It is a closed tubular system in which the blood is propelled by a muscular heart. Two circuits, the pulmonary and the systemic, consist of arterial, capillary, and venous components.
The primary function of the heart is to serve as a muscular pump propelling blood into and through vessels to and from all parts of the body. The arteries, which receive this blood at high pressure and velocity
Human digestive system, the system used in the human body for the process of digestion. The human digestive system consists primarily of the digestive tract, or the series of structures and organs through which food and liquids pass during their processing into forms absorbable into the bloodstream. The system also consists of the structures through which wastes pass in the process of elimination and other organs that contribute juices necessary for the digestive process.


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