1. The mysteries of human life
There are thousands of mysteries contained in the human body.
Questions: - What makes muscles grow? Where does sweat come from? What causes goose bumps? How does food get digested?
A human being --- that complicated collection of brain and bones, blood and organs, thoughts, feelings, and knowledge --- starts as a single cell. This cell is called a zygote.
Zygote is formed when a woman’s egg and a man’s sperm join together in a process called fertilization. The zygote divides and develops into a groups of cells, forming the parts that will one day make up a complete baby.
This growth and development process takes approximately 266 days from fertilization. In that time, the foetus will grow to an average weight of about three (3)kilograms, or two billion times that of the original fertilized egg.
Controlling this wholesome natural process, and dictating everything from the shape of a child’s fingernails to one’s aptitude for music, is the spiraling cord of chemicals known as de-oxy-ribo-nucleic acid, or DNA.
How DNA makes up genes and chromosomes, and how these tiny structures that are present in every cell really work, may be the ultimate mystery of the human body.
Molecules of DNA form a twisted chain in the nucleus of each human cell. Invisible to the naked eyes, these chemicals determine all of a person’s inherited characteristics.
2. What is the human body made of?
The human body is made of tiny building units called cells, each less than 1/50 (0.02) of a millimeter wide. An adult body contains about 75 trillion cells. Laid end to end, these cells would form a chain 1,900,000 kilometres long.
Cells group together to form tissues. Tissues are divided into four (4) different types:
i. epithelial, ii. connective, iii. nerve and iv. muscle.
A mass of tissue that has a specific form and function is called an organ, such as the heart or the kidneys.
When organs work together to perform a particular job in the body, they form an organ system, such as the digestive system or the nervous system.
Muscular system, skeletal system, digestive system, respiratory system, cardiovascular system, nervous system all working closely together for a common purpose.
A covering for the body inside and out: Epithelial tissue, which is made up of one or more layers of cells, forms the skin and lines the cavities that are inside the body.
The inner layer of skin cells (germinal layer of the epidermis) covering the hand grows out as the harder outer layer (epidermis) wears away.
Loose connective tissue (consist of fibroblast, collagen fibre) lies under the skin.
The trachea’s hairlike (found inside the airway leading to the lungs) cilia remove foreign matter; the small intestine’s villi absorb nutrients.
Holding the body together. Connective tissue supports the body and allows the organs to do their work. It is formed from specialized cells interwoven with tiny fibres.
Formed from connective tissue, veins (blood vessels carrying blood back to the heart) carry blood cells in a fluid called plasma. Plasma fluid consist of red blood cell, granulocyte, platelet, lymphocyte.
Cartilage cells and cartilage matrix together form cartilaginous tissue, which is softer and more flexible than bone, can be found in the larynx, tranchea, nose, and ears.
This osseous, or bony, tissue, the main element in bones, is made of hard cells able to support the body. Bone marrow cavity surrounded by radius layers of Haversian canal, blood vessels(arteries & veins) , bone cell, bone matrix.
The human body’s communications network. This motor nerve cell is part of the body’s nervous system, which includes the brain, the spinal cord, and nerves throughout the body.
One set of nerve cell is make up of cell body with nucleus at one end and nerve ending at the other end.
Three kinds of muscle tissue:
i. Visceral (smooth) muscle occurs in and around the internal organs. Stomach.
ii. Skeletal (striated) muscle is primarily involved in movement. Muscle.
iii. Cardiac muscle pumps the heart.
3. How are new human cells formed?
All cells reproduce in roughly the same way through cell division. The most common type of cell division is called mitosis.
In this sequence, the original (parent) cell divides to produce two daughter cells. The process produces exact replicas of the original cell.
Although cells may vary in shape or size according to the tissue to which they belong, all cells have certain things in common. For example, contained within the membrane of almost every cell is a nucleus, which is surrounded by cytoplasm. The nucleus and the cytoplasm together are called protoplasm.
Division and multiplication. A cell’s chromosomes dictate the cell’s structure and functions. Mitosis duplicates this genetic material exactly within daughter cells.
There are actually 46 chromosomes in a human cell.
i. Centrioles duplicates and chromatin in the nucleus forms four(4) individual chromosome strands. These make mirror images of themselves, which remain joined in the middle. There are now four(4) doubled chromosomes.
ii. The nucleus disappears as the centrioles separate to opposite sides of the cell, forming the mitotic spindle.
iii. Double chromosomes align on spindle fibres.
iv. Each doubled chromosomes splits in two; the resulting single chromosomes move to opposite centrioles.
v. Cytoplasm begins to constrict.Two identical daughter cells are formed, each with its own chromosomes and new nucleus. The chromosomes revert to chromatin ready for the process to start again.
Anatomy of a cell
Centrioles. This pair of cylindrical structures adjacent to the nucleus forms the ends of the mistosis spindle.
Chromatin. This substance(fibres) in the nucleus contains DNA and forms chromosomes.
Cytoplasm. This uniform fluid inside the cell is the protoplasm outside the nucleus.
Cytoskeleton. The cytoskeleton maintains the cell’s structure.
Golgi complex. Proteins produced by the cell are stored in and secreted from the Golgi complex.
Lipid droplets. These are fat globules that collect to form droplike shapes.
Lysosomes. These structures contain digestive enzymes that break down complex particles and dissolve unwarted parts of the cell.
Microvilli. Extending from the outside of the cell, these projections increase the cell’s surface area and absorption.
Mitochondria. These microscopic structures are powerhouses, producing energy to maintain the cell’s life.
Nucleolus. This sphere within the nucleus contain the chemical RNA (ribonucleic acid), which is vital to the production of proteins. (Ribonucleic acid is a chemical that works with DNA to control chemical activities within cells.
Nucleus. The nucleus contains chromatin, coordinates all the cell’s functions, and serves as a duplication factory.
Ribosomes. These tiny particles manufacture protein in the cell.
Rough endoplasmic reticulum. This is a network of channels to which ribosomes attach, giving it a rough appearance.
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum. This continuous network of cavities in the cytoplasm makes lipids and carries substances within the cell.
What is DNA and what does it do?
If the spiral of DNA in the nucleus of just one human cell were stretched out in a single line, it would extend nearly two (2) metres .
Each cell in a human body, except the sperm and egg, contain 46 chromosomes, two of which determine gender. Except for identical twins, no two people have chromosomes with the same DNA code.
DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is a long, twisted molecule found in the chromatin of every cell’s nucleus.
DNA could be called the body blueprint : DNA is a chemical record of a person’s height, bone structure, hair colour , body chemistry, and all other inherited characteristics. When cells divide and multiply, DNA makes sure that the new cells are exact copies by correctly passing on its hereditary information.
DNA is made up of four(4) types of chemicals arranged in spiraling ladder called a double helix.
Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine, Thymine are the DNA chemicals.
Of the four chemicals, adenine and thymine always combine to form one rung of the helix ladder. Cytosine and guanine, the other two, always combine to form the other ladder rung.
The arrangement of these DNA chemical base combinations, as well as their number, provides the code for hereditary information.
Making new DNA
The duplication of DNA follows a remarkably precise process.
1. The double helix “unzips” or unfold as enzymes break the bonds between base pairs.
2. Each strand is a pattern for a new DNA. New bases link up in the same order as in the parent strand.
3. The completed duplication produces two strands, both derived from the parent strand and both with the same codes as the parent. In this way, DNA is able to hand down information from cell to cell.
What is AIDS?
The AIDS virus consists of protein, lipid envelope, reverse transcriptase, RNA, Proteins.
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, commonly referred to as AIDS, is a disease that destroys the body’s immune system.
Immunity system work ? How?
Immunity is the ability of an organism (human body, or cell) to resist infection. When pathogens invade the human body, a complex defence network of cells springs into action.
At the core of this immune system are white blood cells produced primarily in the bone marrow and spleen.
Lymphocytes, one kind of white blood cell, turn into two (2) distinct types shortly after they are formed.
T lymphocytes, or T cells, coordinate the immune system’s attack, signaling other types of white blood cells to join the fight, while B lymphocytes, or B cells, produce proteins called antibodies, which attach themselves to the pathogens and disable them.
The immune system cannot fight off every infection, and some pathogens, such as AIDS virus, kill anyone who contracts the disease they carry. Furthermore, since the immune system usually takes a few days to reach full strength, even weak pathogens can make a person sick before they are destroyed.
Cells that protect the human body.
Produced by stem cells in the bone marrow, there are three (3) basic varieties of white blood cells : lymphocytes, granulocytes, and monocytes.
After formation, lymphocytes turn into T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes.
Granulocytes turn into neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils, cells that help to stop pathogens.
The third type of white cells, monocytes, become pathogen-eating cells called macrophages.
Also aiding the immune system are natural killer cells, a type of white blood cell which destroys a variety of damaged cells such as cancer or tumour cells.
How does the immune system work?
1 Neutrophils are the body’s first defence against infection. When pathogens enter the body, neutrophils begin attacking.
2 Monocytes turn into macrophages. Larger than neutrophils, macrophages devour may of the pathogens that escape the neutrophils.
3 As they attack, macrophages exchange information with the helper T cells, telling them how the pathogen is made. Some B lymphocytes, memory B cells, memorize their reaction to a particular pathogen, ready to fight it again. Antibodies released by B cells.
4 Helper T cells then emit a chemical called a lymphokine, which signals the B cells to produce great numbers of antibodies. These are specially designed to destroy the particular antigen, or toxin, produced by the attacking pathogen. The lymphokine also signals killer T cells to destroy cells already damaged by the pathogen. Antibodies bound to pathogens. Damaged cell.
5 Natural killer cells circulate throughout the body , destroying damaged cells.
6 When all the pathogens have been destroyed, suppressor T cells tell the helper T cells to call off the attack.
What is the body’s lymphatic system?
The lymphatic system consists of hundreds of pinhead-size to bean-size glands called lymph nodes, connected by a network of artery like vessels. It plays an essential role in fighting illness, for it is within the lymph nodes that white blood cells take on most pathogens.
When pathogens enter the body, they eventually make their way into the lymphatic system, where they travel through the lymphatic vessels to lymphatic nodes. There, white blood cells that live and multiply within the node attack most kinds of invaders.
In addition to serving as the infection-fighting battleground, the lymph nodes also filter out other impurities that have entered the body.
Circulating throughout the lymphatic system is a clear, colorless fluid called lymph, similar to blood plasma.
Lymph is forced through lymph vessels by outside pressures, such as those that are created by breathing and muscle movements. Valves within the lymphatic vessels keep the lymph from flowing backward.
When a person becomes ill, a common symptom is swollen lymph nodes. Many cancer victims had been mistakenly operated on their lymph nodes around their arm pits or chest, due to doctors ignorant about this simple body physiology nature. This swelling means that the lymphatic system is working especially hard, producing far more lymphocytes than usual and filtering many pathogens from the lymph. Upon recovery, lymphocyte production slows and the nodes return to their natural size.
Afferent vessels leading into the lymph node.
Efferent vessels leading away from the node.
Lymphocytes multiply in structures known as follicles; the germs they fight enter the nodes through lymphatic capillary walls.
Within the lymph nodes, white blood cells fight invading pathogens. The nodes also filter out excess fluids and proteins from the lymph as it passes through.
Although there are hundreds of lymph nodes in the human body, they are concentrated in the neck, armpits, and groin.
The lymphatic system joins the blood circulatory system at two veins in the neck, allowing the exchange of white blood cells. Other parts of the human body that fight disease, such as the tonsils, adenoids, and spleen, are considered part of the lymphatic system.
Lymph nodes and vessels network connects throughout the adenoids, tonsils, armpits lymph nodes, thymus (located just above the heart), spleen, Peyer’s patches, appendix, groin lymph nodes(around hip-joint), bone marrow.
Bone marrow produces red blood cells and white blood cells.
What is AIDS?
The HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus, also known as the virus that causes AIDS) consists of genetic material surrounded by a coating of proteins and lipids. Unlike most viruses, the AIDS virus contains no DNA, only RNA.
DNA: Deoxyribonucleic acid; a chain of molecules within a cell nucleus containing the genetic information that determines inherited characteristics.
RNA: Ribonucleic acid, a chemical that works with DNA to control chemical activities within cells.
Viruses which contain no DNA, only RNA are called retroviruses.
As the HIV invades helper T cells, it uses an enzyme called reverse transcriptase to convert its RNA into DNA. The new DNA then instructs the T cell to duplicate the virus.
How the AIDS virus works.
1. Upon entering the human body, the AIDS virus attaches itself to a helper T cell and then injects its RNA and reverse transcriptase into the T cell.
2. With the help of the reverse transcriptase, the cell then produces viral DNA, using the RNA as a blueprint.
3. The newly produced viral DNA forms a ring and proceeds to penetrate the nucleus of the helper T cell.
4. Once inside the T cell’s nucleus, the viral DNA becomes an inextricable component of the immune cell’s genetic material.
5. Following instructions from the viral DNA, which may become activated while resisting another invading microbe, the T cell produces AIDS RNA, reverse transcriptase, and the ingredients of the virus’s coat.
6. Within the helper T cell, the ingredients produced by the viral DNA assemble themselves to become new AIDS viruses. This may occur years after the initial infection.
7. Each new virus leaves the helper T cell in search of a new host cell, further weakening the body immune system. A helper T cell turns into a host.
8. Eventually, the host helper T cell dies through a process that is not yet understood.
Crippling the body immune system.
When healthy, the immune system can fight off most of the viruses, bacteria, and other pathogens that invade the human body. Helper T cells attack pathogens.
When the AIDS virus infects the human body, the helper T cells are destroyed, resulting in a weakening of the immune system. AIDS viruses kill helper T cells.
As the immune system breaks down, the human body becomes increasingly susceptible to secondary disease, such as pneumonia, that it is too weak to fight off. These are the diseases that usually kill AIDS patients.
AIDS was first identified in the 1980s, and up to date scientists still do not understand may things about how the AIDS disease works. PERHAPS THEY SHOULD SHIFT THE PRESENT PARADIGM WHICH IS BASED ON ‘SOLID PARADIGM’ TO ‘SOLVENT PARADIGM’ TO SOLVE THIS MYSTERY OF AIDS.
AIDS is almost always fatal.
Unlike the viruses that causes the common cold, for example, the AIDS virus cannot be contracted through the air. Not airborne. Furthermore, since its life span outside the human body is very short, the virus cannot be left on a surface by an infected person and picked up later by someone else. The only known ways for the AIDS virus to be transmitted are through direct exchanges of bodily fluids within the body’s internal environments, which occur through transfusions of infected blood, the sharing of needles with infected drug abusers, and sexual intercourse with people who are infected.
Anal sexual intercourse between males (homosexual), or male with female (hetereosexual), will also trigger the onset of AIDS virus. Here is the body physiology explaination. When sperm deposited in the anus were not killed as in natural sexual intercourse via vaginal between male and female, the sperm cells will turn into hostile toxins and affect the host's rectum tissues and cause cells mutation and further undermine the immune system. The spinal nerve system will also be undermined and further weakening of the immune system over time due to the repeated anal sexual intercourse. The anatomy and bio-chemistry of the female vaginal is totally different from the internal anal in architectural, functional, and integrity aspects.
What is cancer?
Cancer is a disease in which cells begin reproducing too quickly, without natural balanced DNA, usually forming a growth called, a tumour. Nearly every part of the human body, as long there is living organism or cell, including the skin, most organs, and the lymphatic system, can develop a tumour.
Present idea is that cancer is triggered by carcinogen, a substance from outside the human body, changes a cell so that it will multiply too rapidly. Some families are predisposed to the disease. Review their family diet and lifestyle to stop this occurrence.
Not all tumours are defined as cancer, and the distinction between cancerous and noncancerous lies in the tumour’s behaviour.
Noncancerous tumours, commonly called benign tumours, stay in the spot where they begin and grow very slowly.
Cancerous, or malignant, tumours are much more serious because they invade and destroy the surrounding healthy cells. Morever, in a process called metastasis, cells from malignant tumours can break away and travel other parts of the body, where they form new tumours and destroy still more tissue. Left untreated, malignant tumours eventually destroy enough tissue to kill the victim, prematurely death.
While cancer is a leading cause of death in adults, children, it is often curable if it is discovered in its early stages. Bear in mind that cancerous cells were once health cells over time had been subjected to acidic environment due to unnatural diet and lifestyle. Remedy diet is to eat natural fresh fruits and fresh herbs. Cooked foods will only result more acidic effect in the body.
This website , www.cacare.com by Dr Chris Teo will help cancer patients using herbs and counsel.
How a tumour grows.
1. An initiator damages the DNA of a cell, thus destroying the ability of the cell to control its own reproduction.
2. Depending on where the damage occurs, the genetic defect may pass on to the daughter cells during cell division.
2a.Usually, the cell’s ability to repair its own DNA prevents the genetic defect from appearing in daughter cells.
3. If the genetic damage cannot be repaired, a promoter may speed up reproduction of damaged cells, forming a tumour. Many carcinogens can also act as promoters – substances that stimulate growth in damaged cells. Promoters usually stimulate a specific kind of cancer – tobacco smoke, for instance, promotes lung cancer.
3a. If the tumour is a benign one, it grows slowly and remains where it formed.
4. If the tumour is malignant, it grows rapidly as its cells draw blood from nearby blood vessels and invade and destroy surrounding tissue. Cells from the tumour may also metastasize, forming new tumours elsewhere.
4a. Metastasis is sometimes stopped by the immune system, which may recognize the cancerous cells and fight their spread.
How cancer spreads.
Cancer spreads as malignant cells break free from a tumour and enter blood or lymphatic vessels. From there, they travel throughout the body, ultimately finding new sites where they multiply further. Certain types of cancer tend to spread to specific parts of the body – tends to metastasize to the lungs and liver.
What makes metastasis possible is the ability of malignant cells to evade the body’s immune system. Normally, any foreign cell appearing in the blood or lymphatic system will be destroyed by white blood cells. However, cells from malignant tumours do not trigger the body’s immune system even though cells from benign tumours do.
What causes a heart attack?
A heart attack occurs when the heart cannot pump enough blood through the body. The most common kind of heart attack is called myocardial infarction – an area of dead tissue in the heart muscle -- which happens when a condition called coronary artery thrombosis blocks the flow of oxygen-bearing blood to heart muscle cells and they die.
This usually happens in two stages.
First, in a process that can take years, vessels carrying blood to the heart muscle tissue become clogged with plaque, which contains cholesterol – a fatty substance found in food and also produced in the liver. This hardening of the arteries is known as atherosclerosis. Never use anti-cholesterol drugs to lower the cholesterol level, for this method counter the body natural cholesterol production due to chronic dehydration over time. Correct rehydration daily is the remedy.
Lesions eventually form in the lining of the damaged arteries.
If a blood clot (thrombus) forms at the lesion, the second stage of a heart attack may happen suddenly as the clot blocks the narrowed blood vessel.