Here is another medical term used in mainstream medical community. Whether to sound professional or whatever reason they might have , the real underlying cause is overtime chronic dehydration and the logical and effective method to reverse it is consistent re hydration of the body. Follow the water-cure protocol formula found in this blog.
Hyper emesis Gaverdarum(HG) Background
Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy is extremely common. Studies estimate that nausea and vomiting occurs in 50-90% of pregnancies. The nausea and vomiting associated with pregnancy usually begins by 9-10 weeks of gestation, peaks at 11-13 weeks, and resolves in most cases by 12-14 weeks. In 1-10% of pregnancies, symptoms may continue beyond 20-22 weeks.
Normal nausea and vomiting may be an evolutionary protective mechanism—it may protect the pregnant woman and her embryo from harmful substances in food, such as pathogenic microorganisms in meat products and toxins in plants, with the effect being maximal during embryogenesis (the most vulnerable period of pregnancy). This is supported by studies showing that women who had nausea and vomiting were less likely to have miscarriages and stillbirth.
The most severe form of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy is called hyperemesis gravidarum (HEG). A continuous spectrum of the severity of nausea and vomiting ranges from the nausea and vomiting that occurs in most pregnancies to the severe disorder of HEG. HEG is characterized by persistent nausea and vomiting associated with ketosis and weight loss (>5% of prepregnancy weight). HEG may cause volume depletion, electrolytes and acid-base imbalances, nutritional deficiencies, and even death. Severe hyperemesis requiring hospital admission occurs in 0.3-2% of pregnancies.
The physiologic basis of HEG is controversial. HEG appears to occur as a complex interaction of biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors. The following theories have been proposed:
Some cases of HEG may represent psychiatric illnesses, including Munchausen syndrome, conversion or somatization disorder, or major depression. They may occur under situations of stress or ambivalence surrounding the pregnancy. It appears that psychologic responses can interact and exacerbate the physiology of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. Most likely, physiological changes associated with pregnancy interact with each woman's psychologic state and cultural values. However, HEG may occur in the absence of psychologic illness or stress.
Women with hyperemesis gravidarum often have high hCG levels that cause transient hyperthyroidism. hCG can physiologically stimulate the thyroid gland thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor. hCG levels peak in the first trimester. Some women with HEG appear to have clinical hyperthyroidism. However, in a larger portion (50-70%), TSH is transiently suppressed and the free thyroxine (T4) index is elevated (40-73%) with no clinical signs of hyperthyroidism, circulating thyroid antibodies, or enlargement of the thyroid. In transient hyperthyroidism of HEG, thyroid function normalizes by the middle of the second trimester without antithyroid treatment. Clinically overt hyperthyroidism and thyroid antibodies are usually absent.
A report on a unique family with recurrent gestational hyperthyroidism associated with hyperemesis gravidarum showed a mutation in the extracellular domain of the TSH receptor that made it responsive to normal levels of hCG. Thus, cases of HEG with a normal hCG may be due to varying hCG isotypes.
A positive correlation between the serum hCG elevation level and free T4 levels has been found, and the severity of nausea appears to be related to the degree of thyroid stimulation. hCG may not be independently involved in the etiology of HEG but may be indirectly involved by its ability to stimulate the thyroid. For these patients, hCG levels were linked to increased levels of immunoglobulin M, complement, and lymphocytes. Thus, an immune process may be responsible for increased circulating hCG or isoforms of hCG with a higher activity for the thyroid. Critics of this theory note that (1) nausea and vomiting are not usual symptoms of hyperthyroidism, (2) signs of biochemical hyperthyroidism are not universal in cases of HEG, and (3) some studies have failed to correlate the severity of symptoms with biochemical abnormalities.
Some studies link high estradiol levels to the severity of nausea and vomiting in patients who are pregnant, while others find no correlation between estrogen levels and the severity of nausea and vomiting in pregnant women. Previous intolerance to oral contraceptives is associated with nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. Progesterone also peaks in the first trimester and decreases smooth muscle activity; however, studies have failed to show any connection between progesterone levels and symptoms of nausea and vomiting in pregnant women. Lagiou et al studied prospectively 209 women with nausea and vomiting who showed that estradiol levels were positively correlated while prolactin levels were inversely associated with nausea and vomiting in pregnancy and no correlation existed with estriol, progesterone, or sex-hormone binding globulin.
The stomach pacemaker causes rhythmic peristaltic contractions of the stomach. Abnormal myoelectric activity may cause a variety of gastric dysrhythmias, including tachygastrias and bradycardias. Gastric dysrhythmias have been associated with morning sickness. The presence of dysrhythmias was associated with nausea while normal myoelectrical activity was present in the absence of nausea. Mechanisms that cause gastric dysrhythmias include elevated estrogen or progesterone levels, thyroid disorders, abnormalities in vagal and sympathetic tone, and vasopressin secretion in response to intravascular volume perturbation. Many of these factors are present in early pregnancy. These pathophysiologic factors are hypothesized to be more severe or the gastrointestinal tract more sensitive to the neural/humoral changes in those who develop HEG.
Liver disease, usually consisting of mild serum transaminase elevation, occurs in almost 50% of patients with HEG. Impairment of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) has been hypothesized to play a role in the pathogenesis of maternal liver disease associated with HEG. It has been suggested that women heterozygous for FAO defects develop HEG associated with liver disease while carrying fetuses with FAO defects due to accumulation of fatty acids in the placenta and subsequent generation of reactive oxygen species. Alternatively, it is possible that starvation leading to peripheral lipolysis and increased load of fatty acids in maternal-fetal circulation, combined with reduced capacity of the mitochondria to oxidize fatty acids in mothers heterozygous for FAO defects, can also cause HEG and liver injury while carrying nonaffected fetuses.
Jarnfelt-Samsioe et al found higher levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and phospholipids in women with HEG compared with matched, nonvomiting, pregnant and nonpregnant controls. This may be related to the abnormalities in hepatic function in pregnant women. However, Ustun et al found decreased levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, apoA and apoB in women with HEG compared with controls.
Helicobacter pylori is a bacterium found in the stomach that may aggravate nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. Studies have found conflicting evidence of the role of H pylori in HEG. Recent studies in the United States have not shown association with HEG. However, persistent nausea and vomiting beyond the second trimester may be due to an active peptic ulcer caused by H pylori infection.
Vestibular and olfaction
Hyperacuity of the olfactory system may be a contributing factor to nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. Many pregnant women report the smell of cooking food, particularly meats, as triggers to nausea. Striking similarities between HEG and motion sickness suggest that unmasking of subclinical vestibular disorders may account for some cases of HEG.
HEG is associated with overactivation of sympathetic nerves and enhanced production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. Increased adenosine levels have also been noted; since adenosine is an established suppressor of excessive sympathetic nerves activation and cytokine production, the increase in plasma adenosine in HEG may be modulatory. Trophoblast-derived cytokines have been reported to induce secretion of hCG. Immunoglobulins C3 and C4 and lymphocyte counts are significantly higher in HEG. T-helper 1/T-helper 2 balance is decreased in women with HEG, which results in increased humoral immunity. Increased fetal DNA has been found in the maternal plasma of women with HEG, and the increased DNA is speculated to be derived from trophoblasts that have been destroyed by the hyperactive maternal immune system. Thus, HEG may be mediated by immunologic aberrations in pregnancy.
Of all pregnancies, 0.3-2% are affected with HEG (approximately 5 per 1000 pregnancies).
HEG appears to be more common in westernized industrialized societies and urban areas than rural areas.
HEG was a significant cause of maternal death before 1940. Mortality from HEG in Great Britain decreased from 159 deaths per million births from 1931-1940 to 3 deaths per million births from 1951-1960. Charlotte Brontë is thought to have died of HEG in 1855. In the United States, 7 deaths from HEG were reported in the 1930s, but today, although HEG is still associated with significant morbidity, it is a rare cause of maternal mortality.
* Many hours of productive work are lost because of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. Nearly 50% of employed women believe that their work is affected, and up to 25% require time off from work.
* HEG is a debilitating illness that can cause severe suffering, which profoundly affects both patients and their families. In about half of the women there is an adverse effect on spousal relationships, and 55% have feelings of depression. In one study of 140 women with HEG, 27% required multiple hospitalizations. The financial burden of HEG on the American health system has been estimated as approximately $130 million dollars per year, excluding physician fees.
* Women with HEG who have a low pregnancy weight gain (<15.4 lb or 7 kg) have increased risk for delivering neonates of low birth weight, delivering neonates who are small for gestational age, preterm delivery, and a 5-minute Apgar score of less than 7.
No clear racial predominance is noted for HEG.
* HEG is less common in American Indian and Eskimo populations.
* HEG is less common in African and some Asian populations (but not industrialized Japan).
HEG affects females.
The risk of HEG appears to decrease with advanced maternal age.
* The defining symptoms of HEG are gastrointestinal in nature and include nausea and vomiting.
* Other common symptoms include ptyalism (excessive salivation), fatigue, weakness, and dizziness.
* Patients may experience the following:
o Sleep disturbance
o Decreased gustatory discernment
o Mood changes
o Decreased concentration
* When obtaining history from the patient, discuss present symptoms. Obtain information pertaining to the timing, onset, severity, pattern, and alleviating and exacerbating factors (eg, relationship to meals, medications, prenatal vitamins, stress, other triggers).
* A thorough review of systems for any symptoms that might suggest other gastrointestinal, renal, endocrine, and central nervous system disorders is vital.
* Review past medical history, placing emphasis on past medical conditions, surgeries, medications, allergies, adverse drug reactions, family history, social history (including support system), employment, habits, and diet.
* Obtaining a thorough gynecologic history of symptoms, such as vaginal bleeding or spotting, past pregnancies, past use of oral contraceptives, and response to oral contraceptives used, is important.
* The physical examination is usually unremarkable in patients with HEG.
* The physical examination findings may be more helpful if the patient has unusual complaints suggestive of other disorders (eg, bleeding, abdominal pain).
* Pay attention to the vital signs, including standing and lying blood pressure and pulse, volume status (eg, mucous membrane condition, skin turgor, neck veins, mental status), general appearance (eg, nutrition, weight), thyroid examination findings, abdominal examination findings, cardiac examination findings, and neurologic examination findings.
In a review of 1,301 cases of HEG from Canada, Fell et al showed that medical complications of hyperthyroid disorders, psychiatric illness, previous molar disease, gastrointestinal disorders, pregestational diabetes, and asthma were significantly independent risk factors for HEG, whereas maternal smoking and maternal age older than 30 years decreased the risk. Pregnancies with female fetuses and multiple fetuses were also at increased risk.
In some studies, women from low to middle socioeconomic class, women with lower levels of education, women with previous pregnancies with nausea and vomiting, women in their first pregnancy, and women with previous intolerance to oral contraceptives more commonly experience nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. Nausea and vomiting during pregnancy is also more common with multiple-gestation pregnancies.
Other factors that have been proposed include ethnicity, occupational status, fetal anomalies, increased body weight, nausea and vomiting in a prior pregnancy, history of infertility, interpregnancy interval, corpus luteum in right ovary, and prior intolerance to oral contraceptives.
* Risk factors for HEG may include the following:
o Previous pregnancies with HEG
o Greater body weight
o Multiple gestations
o Trophoblastic disease
* Cigarette smoking is associated with a decreased risk for HEG.