Friday, April 14, 2017

Learning Water and Salt In Our Human Body

The Importance of Salt And Water

There are 4 vital elements (compounds) needed for life.

Number 1. is oxygen, and we've looked at the importance of oxygen many times this week.

Number 2. is water. Our human body from the neck down is 75 percent water, from the neck up is 85 percent water.

Number 3. The third most vital  element needed for life is sodium, and the fourth , number 4 is potassium.


One of the first questions I ask people when they come to me for help with their health is "How much water do you drink?
Here are some of the answers: "I don't like water", now that answer is not much. Another answer is, "I don't drink water" or "I'm busying the little house all day." Another answer is , "If I drink too much water, my legs swell." 

These last two answers tell me that the water is not getting inside the cell. You know there's been deaths on the Kokoda Trail and these people are drinking 5 liters of water a day. They're perspiring huge amounts.  So, the water's going in and the water's coming out but it's not coming out of water only. Have you ever lick your perspiration , it's very salty. These people are losing a lot of sodium but not just sodium. They're losing a lot of other minerals. 

So, how do we get the water inside the cell? Because these people just drinking the water, the water is bypassing the cells and just coming straight out in the form of perspiration or urine. But both perspiration and urine is just not water that is coming out. Yes, waste is coming out but there are also minerals that are being lost. 
So, how do we get the water inside the cell? 

To look at that, we need to go to the third most vital element for life which is sodium . We need to look at the way sodium is found in nature . Sea water contains 92 minerals. Sea water is often called an isotonic solution because it is the exact same mineral and proportion as is found in the human body. Of those 92 minerals, 30 percent is made up of sodium and  approximately 50 percent is made up of chloride. Because sodium chloride makes up the largest amount of the minerals , when the water, H2O,  is evaporated from the sea water, the first crystals formed is sodium chloride. And so what happens is usually that is scooped up, it is bleached white and sodium aluminosilicate, a man-made product, is put with it so it runs freely, there's your table salt. Table salt contains 2 minerals and those 2 minerals are sodium and chloride. Sodium chloride are harsh minerals that if you were to inject sodium chloride straight into the veins, you would kill a person. Sodium chloride, they are both essential to the body. Sodium is the third most vital element needed for life, but we need to be taking sodium into our body the way it is found in nature with all of its other minerals. The salt that we use is Celtic salt. And Celtic salt contains  82 minerals. That's pretty close to sea water salt with 92 minerals. Where are the other 10 minerals? They are in such pico* proportions , barely measurable that it is impossible that a few are lost. But hey, 82 is still a lot closer to 92 (sea salt) than 2 (table salt). [*Pico- (symbol p) is a unit prefix in the metric system denoting one trillionth, a factor of ten to the power of minus twelve,  denoting a factor of 10−12 (0.000000000001).]

As I said , sodium and chloride are both important. Sodium is used everywhere in the human body. It is in its largest abundance on the outside of the cell, we call that extracellular fluid. And the largest concentration of mineral inside the cell is potassium. Potassium is found in rich abundance in all your fresh fruits and vegetables. 

Chloride : Our hydrochloric acid is made from chloride. So, chloride is important. So, often people are told that they need to stop salt intake . Why are they told to stop salt intake because they're having too much of the sodium chloride, too much of the table salt. And because it's in an imbalanced form , it's causing an imbalance in the human body, right down at the cellular level. 

Sodium chloride is such harsh minerals that they kill the taste buds*. They are harsh when they're by themselves. They're harsh when they are not balanced with all the other minerals. Have you noticed that people who use a lot of table salt, they put it on everything and they put it on even before they taste the food . Do you know why? Because it kills the taste buds, no wonder they can't taste anything. [*Taste budsany of the clusters of bulbous nerve endings on the tongue and in the lining of the mouth which provide the sense of taste. Those are called papillae (say: puh-PILL-ee), and most of them contain taste buds. Taste buds have very sensitive microscopic hairs called microvilli (say: mye-kro-VILL-eye). Those tiny hairs send messages to the brain about how something tastes, so you know if it's sweet, sour, bitter, or salty.]
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So, the more they use table salt, the more they have to use. Whereas Celtic salt with all of its minerals awakens the taste buds. You can get other salts like Himalayan salt. It has about 82 minerals. There is Murray River salt that whereby they're both like pink flakes. It got about I think 75 minerals. So, there are a few salts.  If you're not sure on the mineral balance of your salt that you are buying, just ring the manufacturer and ask him/her for the mineral analysis of the salt.  

Now, salt is important. There's a verse in the Bible that talks about salt. It is in Matthew 5, chapter 5 verse 13. It says , "Ye are the salt of the earth, if the salt hath lost its savor, wherewith shall it be salted. It is henceforth, good for  nothing but to be cast out and trodden underfoot of men." How does the salt lose its savor? I would like to suggest that this salt (table salt with only 2 minerals) has lost its savor . It's old English. It has lost its minerals. And what does the Bible say, it's good for ? Henceforth, good for nothing but to be cast out and trodden underfoot of men. 

Now, we need salt as it's found in nature with all of its other minerals. And this salt brings a balance. When someone is not having enough potassium , and if someone is not eating any fresh fruits and vegetables, their potassium levels go down. And if that same person is putting table salt on everything with its high sodium chloride, sodium levels rise. Notice that there's a bi-layer membrane around every  cell and in that membrane there are sodium potassium pumps that basically look like that. 

The Sodium-Potassium Pump

The process of moving sodium and potassium ions across the cell membrance is an active transport process involving the hydrolysis of ATP to provide the necessary energy. It involves an enzyme referred to as Na+/K+-ATPase. This process is responsible for maintaining the large excess of Na+ outside the cell and the large excess of K+ ions on the inside. A cycle of the transport process is sketched below. It accomplishes the transport of three Na+ to the outside of the cell and the transport of two K+ ions to the inside. This unbalanced charge transfer contributes to the separation of charge across the membrane. The sodium-potassium pump is an important contributor to action potential produced by nerve cells. This pump is called a P-type ion pump because the ATP interactions phosphorylates the transport protein and causes a change in its conformation.

The sodium-potassium pump moves toward an equilibrium state with the relative concentrations of Na+ and K+ shown at left.

And these pumps are constantly working like this causing the sodium and potassium to be monitored at the right levels. But if someone is getting too much sodium and not having enough potassium, then  the concentration of sodium rises , the concentration of potassium lowers. And because of osmosis diffusion , too much sodium starts to merge in to the cell. When too much sodium merges  into the cell, the cell swells. There's your high blood pressure. Your doctor is right, table salt will increase blood pressure but the answer is not 'No Salt' because if No Salt happens, then sodium levels go too low and the little bit of sodium that is found inside the cell, it drops too low, and then the cell swells. So, 'No Salt' advice and table salt both can contribute  to high blood pressure.  We need to be having salt in its balanced form with all of its other minerals. And I think you agree with me, what's a baked potato without salt. What's avocado and tomato on sourdough spelt toast without salt. Salt awakens the food. And your hydrochloric acid is made from chloride. We cannot digest properly unless we're having adequate salt. 

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Lining the gastrointestinal tract of villi.  On those  villi are receptor sites. And these receptor sites are to take the glucose through and into the blood . Inside that receptor site, there is a carrier. And the carrier is the one that takes the glucose through and into the blood but the carrier says "I will not accept your glucose unless you come with a molecule of sodium." When the sodium is present, then the carrier will take the glucose through and into the blood. Let me give you, straight from the horse's mouth on this. This was a sentence in the anatomy and physiology book.  Let me give it to you. 

Sodium is the main transport system of glucose across the brush border cell and into the blood.  You will find that in every anatomy and physiology book. What's happening if someone is not having any salt? Well, there is a little bit of sodium in your food, in your fruits and vegetables. If there's not enough sodium around, not every bit of glucose can get into your blood which explains why some people who are  going on  a salt-free diet and their energy levels go down. Because they are not getting the nutrients out of their gut as they should and into the blood. No wonder it is the most vital element needed for life. We needed the salt. We use here at home is Celtic salt. And that Celtic salt contains 3 magnesium (Mg). It contains magnesium bromide (MgBr2), magnesium sulfate (MgSu) and magnesium chloride (MgCl2 ). Magnesium is a water hungry molecule. So, it's always trying to pull the water into itself. That explains why on a rainy day, our salt can get quite moist, because magnesium is a water hungry molecule. So, when you put a crystal of the Celtic salt on your tongue and then drink a glass of water, when the crystals on your tongue even if it only be for a few seconds, then the mucous membranes in the mouth are absorbing. First of all,  the magnesium, remember, is a water hungry molecule. And that magnesium is taken via the blood straight to the cell and it pulls the water inside the cell. It is the quickest way to hydrate a body is to put that crystal of Celtic salt on your tongue, take and drink that glass of water and it ensures the water is pulled inside the cell. I suggest that we do it at least once or twice a day. 

Here on the detox program when guests are having the exercise program especially in the summer and then in the steam bath at night, I advise they do it about three times a day. That would be about every second glass of water. If you put the salt into the glass of water, the magnesium in the salt will absorb all the water into it, so you haven't got that free access of magnesium as easily as you put it on your tongue, which will take it and through the blood, to the cell to pull the water inside the cell. When the water goes through that membrane, there's a little motor in that membrane and as the water rushes through, that little membrane motor starts spinning. And the spinning of that little motor inside the cell gives us a unit of energy.    

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So, when everyone's feeling tired in mid-morning, or reaching for their Mars chocolate bar or cake or pie or sandwich, a cup of coffee, you just take your crystal of Celtic salt and have a glass of water and you watch your energy levels have a little pick-up. Because  as we saw the other day, that stomach needs a  rest between meals and doesn't need more food. It needs water, and often the body doesn't know the difference between water-thirst and food-hunger. That's why if it's between meals and you're 'hungry' , just have a glass of water. If you are feeling tired , have that little bit of salt before you have the water and it will pick you up. That's why when you're going to go and walk the Kokoda trail , make sure you have a little bag of salt crystals, Celtic salt crystals in your pocket. Celtic salt has more magnesium than the Himalayan salt or the Murray River salt and you can see it because it is just a lot wetter. The other salts do have magnesium but not quite as much as the Celtic salt. 

So, if you're going to put the Celtic salt in the grinder, just dry them out in the oven first before you put them into your grinder. When the weather is very, very wet , sometimes we have to take the salt out of our grinder two or three times a week , dry it out again, put it back into the grinder, so that is can be ground at the table. 

When you think about sea water, that it is called an isotonic solution, which is the exact same mineral and balance and proportion is found in blood, found in the intra- and extra-cellular fluid in the tissues , you can see why the sailors manual , it says if you're shipwrecked , to start sipping little bits of seawater straight away and it will keep your life for many days . But if the person waits for three days to live very dehydrated, then drinks a whole glass of water, you can see that will put the mineral balance in and out of their cells way out and they certainly can start to go a little bit mad. Also in the war, if the Navy had wounded-men that needed a blood transfusion, they would transfuse with seawater. Remember, it is the exact same mineral balance and proportion as is found in the human body.

I have an interview in one of our  books of a Dr. Jacques de Langre** who is a French doctor who's written a whole book on salt, he said there's no salt issue. He said, because we use the mineralized salt. He said, if someone got high blood pressure, I put them on the mineralized salt and it can balance it out. It's only when sodium is in an imbalance state or lost its savor as the Bible says that it becomes a problem. [**Jacques de Langre, PhD, a Californian biochemist studied Celtic Salt for over 30 years. His two books “Seasalt’s Hidden Powers” and “Sea Salt, the Vital Spark for Life” are well worth seeking out. ]

So, when you think about it , we cry "seawater", we sweat "seawater", baby swims in "seawater" in mother's womb Amniotic fluid , that's the same mineral balance. 

What about calcium ? It cannot get into the cell by itself. Calcium needs vitamin D. When vitamin D is present , calcium outside the cell can be pulled into the cell. And when it comes into the cell, all the other minerals piggyback on the back of calcium. 

What about glucose?  Glucose can't get into the cell by itself. It needs insulin. Except the brain which do not need insulin to use glucose for its energy generation. Insulin is the key that unlocks the door to allow that glucose go inside the cell. How many people today are sick through ignorance. How many people are not drinking water because their feet swell or they're visiting little house**. If you have that little bit of magnesium in the form of Celtic salt, three times a day, the water will get into the cell, the feet won't swell and the persons not visiting the little house quite as much. [**little house -- a toilet located in a small shed outside a house or other building]
But how many do not realize that. So, they're not drinking enough water, they're not having the whole salt and the high source of magnesium in the vegetable kingdom is your dark greens. They're not in the sunshine because many citizens are scared of the Sun today. One lady told me that every time she goes out to put the clothes laundry on the line, she has a hat on, sunglasses, white hand-gloves, so the Sun not even touching her. So, many people are vitamin D deficient, as a result, calcium and mineral deficiency. 

You remember our first lecture, I showed you that a lot of research is showing that  92 percent of DNA damages from mineral deficiency, it is because of the calcium deficiency, because of the vitamin D deficiency. That's why the detective hat has to go on why are these things so. So, many people are low in vitamin D , thus are low in the minerals. Many have been given the wrong message on fat. They've stopped the fat, so they're hungry all day, so they're overdoing the carbohydrates which overworks the pancreas. The pancreas getting weary, stops producing the insulin and the glucose can't get in the cell. Can you see this scenario ? 

Water can't get in, minerals can't get in, glucose can't get in and when you think about it , this cell is the CBD, this is the central business district of the whole of the human body inside  the cell. The body says, "We got a crisis here. We can't get the basic nutrients and requirements for this CBD to function in." So, the body says, "We've got one more thing up our sleeve. We'll just force it in." What is that called? Blood pressure. That's what blood pressure is. It's a pressure building up to force these basic things in the cell because we're at  a crisis level. 

So, what is the cause  of high blood pressure? There are many causes, but let me write this down for you, so you can put it together. 

High Blood Pressure (H.B.P.) and with some people it'll be every one of these points. And with some people it won't be. That's why the detective hat has to be put on. 
High blood pressure can be caused by ~1. dehydration. In dehydration, little capillary network shut down to try to conserve full blood volume that builds up pressure.
High blood pressure can be caused by ~ 2. no salt
High blood pressure can be caused by ~ 3. table salt. 
High blood pressure can be caused by ~ 4. no greens / vegetables, no magnesium, water can't get in the cell.
High blood pressure can be caused by ~ 5. no sunshine , no vitamin D, minerals can't get in to the cell. 
High blood pressure can be caused because  ~ 6. of inactivity. When you exercise, you get the circulation  of the blood out of the internal organs or areas of the human body and now to the extremity which takes pressure off the heart.
High blood pressure can be caused because ~7. of a high sugar, high carbohydrate diet ,would say high-sugar/ high wheat. Earlier in the week I showed you how this wheat is getting that blood sugar level up too high, wearing out the pancreas. ~8. It can be caused because of a no-fat diet , with probably small amounts of margarine and of course no-fat is referring nothing at all . No-fat will say or margarine . Wow! 

You see there's more to high blood pressure than meets the eyes. High blood pressure can be caused because ~9 of constant distress. I don't say stress because everyone has a  bit of stress in their life. And one man said to me, "I love stress, it keeps me working hard, I get heaps done." I giggled.  So then I had to define distress. Constant distress is wearing down for the body. That's why if there's constant distress, you have to find out why and what can be done to alleviate that.

With some people, it's one or two causes , with some people, it might be all of them . And if you don't turn the tap off, you're still going to be mopping up in the other corner. 

What's also necessary to keep that blood nice and thin to prevent high blood pressure is blood thinners. So, let me give you a list of blood thinners. There is no need for rat poison, I mean warfarin. Did you know that, that's what warfarin is. It is rat poison. And there  are far more powerful things that can be used that don't have the danger of the side effect of the warfarin. You know there's a lot of information coming out now reassessing whether aspirin is really thinning that blood effectively. One newspaper article on research done 6 months ago, this early 2014, they're finding out that aspirins causing brain bleeds. Hmmm!

 Blood Thinners
~ 1.Water.
But you can thin the blood beautifully without any dangers of these drugs that I mentioned. Water , ideally two(2) to two and a half  (2.5) liters per day. I'm going to define water in a minute. That keeps the blood thin. And as we looked at earlier in the week, it needs to be taken between meals, not with meals. 

~ 2.Celtic salt or the whole salt, together with water keeps that blood nice and thin. 

~3. Cayenne pepper. 
Image result for Cayenne pepper

Cayenne pepper is a remarkable herb. You might be familiar with Jethro Kloss's book "Back to Eden" (Click Here) . Jethro Kloss devotes half a page to every herb, but 10 pages to cayenne pepper. A remarkable book. A fantastic blood thinner. It is known to strengthen arterial walls. It's even known to repair heart muscle. If you are not used to it , just have a little bit every day, you'll get used to it. I'm used to it now.  One person said, but it burns, I said not for long. Just a few minutes, it will pass. You know how the police were using capsicum spray. Do you know that after that experience , the criminal who got the capsicum spray in his eyes, he would  have better eye sight. Yes, it debilitates, Oh! yes! , it hurts but the next day he'd be able to see better. Yes, if you're brave, you can try it, cayenne pepper in the eye, it doesn't stink for long, briefly. And it never hurts.  One doctor  in 'Back To Eden', he said it's impossible to abuse cayenne pepper and it never burn. It feels like it is but it will never harm the tissues. 

~4. Garlic : There's a lot of information coming up now. Has been really for the last 10 years. On what a powerful herb garlic is, regarding the blood and regarding the heart. When combined with its ability to thin blood by reducing platelet aggregation as well as reduce blood pressure, this trifecta of serious benefit place garlic at the top of the natural healing award winners.

~5. Another blood thinner is ginger. Gingers is a remarkable herb. It's a potent anti-inflammatory herb but it also is a blood thinner. So you can grate some ginger, pour in boiling water on a delicious tea or you can put it in all your stir-fries, put it in very legume dish, delicious. And yet it's thinning your blood. 

~6. Omega-3 with its three double bonds is a blood thinner. So , there's your chia-seed, there's your flaxseed, and the nuts that is the highest omega-3 is the walnut .  


So, as you can see by my list here, there is no need to take drugs that have their possible side-effects. We need to keep that blood nice and thin. Remember it's the life of the flesh. 

We have a book in our library, and it's called "One of The Bodies Many Cries for Water" and the whole book is on water cure many diseases. It would probably be one of the most interesting books that I have ever read. Dr. Batmanghelidj, we will call him Dr. B because it's a difficult name. He goes into every single organ, every single part of the human body and how it is affected by full hydration and how it is affected by  dehydration. There are two other titles to his book.
 The first title is the "One Body's Many Cries For Water" , the other title is "You're Not Sick, You're Thirsty" . Another title is " Don't Treat Thirst With Medications." He was a political prisoner in Iran. And in the prison cells there were many sick people and he only had one thing that he could use and that was water. So, no matter what the problem was, he'd give them a glass of water. Fifteen minutes later he'd give them another glass of water. 15 minutes later, he'd give them another glass of water. He only did it because that's all he had but he noticed as the days and the weeks went by, people were recovering. People with constipation were no longer constipated. People with stomach ulcers were no longer suffering from stomach ulcers. You see the lining of the stomach 

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     Image result for lining of the stomach

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has a thick mucosa wall on it. And mucus is 99 percent water. And Dr. B shows in dehydration, it's one of the first places that we lose water is the stomach. Inside the mucosal lining, there's sodium bicarbonate designed to neutralize stomach acid if it tries to come through. Well in this tiny little layer here, there's  no sodium bicarbonate. So, it is very easy for the hydrochloric acid** to start eating little holes in the lining of the stomach. He claims in the writing of his book to have healed 3,000 cases of stomach ulcer with water only. 

He shows that a glass of water, half an hour before a meal thickens that mucosa wall. Our hydrochloric acid is made from water. Today is Wednesday, yesterday was Tuesday, I needed to drink two glasses of water yesterday, so my liver could make enough hydrochloric acid for breakfast this morning. Yesterday, I needed to drink two glasses of water, another two, so my liver could make enough hydrochloric acid for lunch today and if a person needs three meals, that's six glasses of water the day before just to make the digestive juices. WOW! That's only the digestion . That's not even mentioning all the other body parts. 

You see, our water and loss in a day. I looked at this a little earlier , so I'll recap it. Out of the kidneys, our water loss in a day is approximately 1.5 liters. Whereas out of the skin , our water loss in a day is approximately 0.5 liter . Out of our colon , the water loss in a day is approximately 0.3 liter.  If someone has diarrhea and diarrhea-ring a lot, it could  come up to 1 liter, even 2.5 liter. And out of our lungs, the water loss in a day is approximately 0.2 liter, every exhalation there is moisture. So, that's a 2.5 liters loss every day. And have you notice, we've got no reserve tank on the back. The only water that goes in is the water we put in via drinking through our mouth.  And that's what Dr. B's book is all on. He says, one of the first places that failed is the stomach . Another is of course is digestion when we don't have enough water to make the digestive juices, which are the enzymes that break our  food down. 

He also showed that in the pancreas, it is affected by dehydration. Let me show you.        
Image result for pancreas

In the pancreas, it releases actually four digestive enzymes in the gut. So we'll put gastrointestinal tract in the pancreas: 
1. pancreatic lipase is released and it does the final breakdown of fat; 
2. pancreatic amylase does the final breakdown on starch and 
3. trypsin does the breakdown of protein and
4. Chymotrypsin also does the breakdown of protein. 

So these are four enzymes released from the pancreas that finalize digestion. Most people don't realize that the pancreas is probably the main organ of digestion. When people died of pancreatic cancer, they usually die of malnutrition because they haven't got the final breakdown of their food. So their food can't get out of their gastrointestinal tract and into their blood. So, they basically die of malnutrition.  
The pancreas also releases two hormones from the blood. And this is glycogen and insulin. Now those hormones are released into the blood and they're the ones that control our blood glucose levels. If they go too high, insulin gets it down. If they go too low, glycogen gets it up. These hormones are constantly balancing the glucose levels in our blood. Very important organ is the pancreas. All of these 2 hormones and these 4 enzymes are made from water. 

So, a person can develop diabetes, digestive problems, all because they're dehydrated. 

Let's move on down to the colon. 
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One of the main functions of colon is to take water out so stools are formed. If the human body is dehydrated, more water gets taken out than should be taken out from the colon, then we get rabbit pellets, cement, basically, there's constipation. Very difficult to have 3 evacuations/excretions a day, which Dr. Kellogg said is a necessary if you're having three meal in-takes a day in a dehydrated person. 

Dr. Batmanghelidj also showed that dehydration is felt in the brain. Our brain is a hydroelectric system. No hydro, no electricity. A person can suffer from depression, negative thought patterns because they're dehydrated. Something else happens in dehydration with the brain and that is the brain cells shrink. And when the brain cells shrink, that hurts. It hurts very much. When I say to people, do  you get headache, a common answer is our only answer , "I'm dehydrated." 

Dehydration  is also felt in the lungs. Here are the little bronchioles 

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At the end of each bronchial there are alveoli and they look like a little bunch of grapes. And that alveoli is where the gaseous exchange take place. 

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So, when we breathe in they fill up with oxygen. And over those little alveoli are a little capillary network. And what the blood does is it picks up the oxygen and drops the carbon dioxide . Then we breathe it out. It is a fascinating system and Grey's Anatomy says we have 300 million of alveoli. Each alveolus is wrapped in a fine mesh of capillaries covering about 70% of its area. An adult alveolus has an average diameter of 200 micrometres, with an increase in diameter during inhalation. But in each little alveoli there's a droplet of water. And because of the surface tension of water, do you understand the surface tension of water? When I trained as a hairdresser, I had to learn about surface tension of water. When you put water on your scalp, it doesn't really get through because of the oil. You put shampoo, it breaks the surface tension of water and of course, it can get through. Because of the surface tension of water and this little miniscule droplet of water in the alveoli when you breath out , the majority of your carbon dioxide is breathed out. And so you can get a full quota of oxygen back in . In dehydration, we don't have that little bit of water. So, when the person breathes out , they can't breathe out all their carbon dioxide, so that when they breathe in, they're not getting as much oxygen  as they could be getting. So, here's another point, with the most vital element needed for life, we need to be well hydrated to be able to get that oxygen. And we need to be having the proper salt and all of its minerals for the cell to utilize that water. So, you can see that they're all interact with each other. We need all of them. I had a man do our program, it's a few years ago now. He's 44 and he had three main problems. He had a very congested chest. You see, in dehydration, to try and conserve the water  loss with each breath, the little bronchial shrink up. He had chronic headaches. You see, the cells shrink when we're dehydrated.  

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And he had lower back pain. Did you know that 75 percent of our upper body weight is held in our lower back by water. So, in a dehydrated body, there's not as much water there that should be there and the back hurts, the lower back gets painful. So, he had these three main problems. I said to him, "How much water do you drink a day?". He said, " I don't drink water." I said, "No water?" He said, "No, I don't drink any water."  He said, " I don't like it."
He said, " I have a lot of headache tablets and I drink it down with coke and cups of  tea and coffee." Ah ha , and he was living on the pills because he had so much pain here in his head, and so much congestion here in his chest and eating antibiotic after antibiotic. You know and last night on the news, 7:30 P.M. report stated that because of a little boy who nearly die from too many antibiotics , they're saying now, doctors must stop prescribing so many antibiotics. It said last night on the news that Australia is the  highest user of antibiotics of any country in the world. Isn't that incredible?  

Can you see what's the use of the antibiotics give this man is remaining dehydrated . That's why the detective hat has to be put on why are these things so. I said , "No water?" He said, "No water." I said,"Uh-huh." As he went through the program, he started drinking more water. He started to drink almost a liter of water a day. Now the student might say to me, No, no, Barbara, he's supposed to drink at least two, maybe  two and a half liters a day. I said , "It's pretty good . Yesterday it was none." Build it up little by little, build it up. By the end of the week, he was drinking two liters of water. He said, "This is amazing." He said, " I done , I haven't had headaches for two days." He said, " First time since I can remember." He said, " My chest is getting a lot looser."  And he said, " My lower back pain is gone." WOW!   

What was his problem? It was dehydration.  Can you see if that point's not addressed, the osteopath that trying to fix his back isn't going to go far. The doctor or the naturopath that's trying to fix his lungs aren't going to go far. The neurosurgeon that's taking scans of his brain to try and find out why it isn't working is not going to get anywhere, when it's just water. If someone has headaches and say to me, but I drink two liters of water a day. My answer to that is, "Well , it's not the water, let's go one step further and find out what it is." And it could be many things. That's why we have to be detectives. Have you ever seen Hercule Poirot,  Agatha Christine's detective?  Hercule Poirot is a fictional Belgian detective, created by Agatha Christie. He notes things no one else looks at. There's a little thread on the carpet, there's a little nick in the curtain and everyone's  rolling their eyes that the silly little things he's looking at. But in the final assessment of finding the, person, you know, who did the crime, those little points in the puzzle turned out to be some of the most important pieces of information. We need to be private investigators, we need to be Hercule Poirots, we need to look at every point. I don't think we should run out our self ragged finding every little point but when you start investigating, you start to get an idea. And it was not hard to find out why this man was having his problems. Especially at the end of the week, when his lower back pain was gone, his headaches were gone and his chest was almost totally clear, it can take a little bit longer for all that to come up. I saw him six weeks later, he jumped out of the car at a smooth, a huge smile on his face. He had a big bottle of water in his hand, and he said, "Three liters a day!" I smiled and so happy for him. He got his life back. It can be that simple. And that's why anyone that comes to me for help, I go through these eight laws. 
1. Pure Air, 2.Sunshine, 3.Water, 4. Proper Diet, 5.Rest, 
6. Temperance, 7. Exercise, 8.Trust in Divine Power. 

Because these are the true remedies and often you can find little glitches here and there that give you an indication of why these things are so. 

A friend of Michael's is a bricklayer. And he rang up Michael the other day, is a bit of a rough bloke, he said, "I got this lower backpain." He said, "I've been to the chiropractor, he can't fix me." He said, "All the blokes on the jobsite are getting it." Marcus said, "What do you drink." You said we all drink Coke. How much Coke do you drink a day? They are a couple of liters. Marco said ,"Well, I've got a simple little test that you can try. Get rid of the Coke and drink water. " He said, "Water? Is it just water? " Marco said, "Do you remember that one ? Remember  what you used to drink? He 's a writer, "We've got nothing else to lose." Didn't know within a couple of days, all the men had no lower back pains. All the men were coming alive. The work on the workforce improved, the output improved. They were all so happy. What was the change? It was just water.  

One of the problems with things like coke and coffee, they contain two major dehydrating agents which is the caffeine and the sugar. And so even if the person drinks one or two glasses a day, they're still not getting hydrated because the coffee and the coke are taking it all away. It must be water and water alone. What's the best water? Well, the best water is pure water. And most taps today contain water that has fluoride and chlorine in it. The chlorine is not a huge problem because if you pour a jug of water from the tap and put it on the bench, within half an hour the chlorine has all evaporated but there is a problem with the fluoride. Citizens across the country are quite aware of the bogus attempts to justify the toxic waste that is manually added to tap water. Calcium Fluoride is a natural occurrence and Sodium Fluoride is the toxic waste that became a big money maker during the 50’s when waste deposits (Labeled dangerous by the EPA) began showing up in city water. This deceptive practice continues today, but citizens are demanding answers from city officials. So we must get water filters. I think reverse osmosis is the main filter, there could be more place to  research on it, I can't show you because I don't know enough about water filters. Because we never used one because we've always had the rain water or the creek water. We have beautiful water here. So, very important to drink good water. One man said to me , "What about an alkaline water machine?" Well, as you saw yesterday in our  acid-alkaline lecture, alkaline is very important . But alkaline water is not going to do a huge amount if  the person is eating a lifestyle that is all acid. Eating a food program that's all acid or partaking of a lifestyle that is all acid. It is true an alkaline water can be a contributing factor in the whole picture. 

So, water, we need water. It's not negotiable subject. You just got to find out how to get it in. I never used to drink water. I was breastfeeding or pregnant non-stop for 14 years. My last baby, I breastfed for three years. And I hardly ever drank water. I drank maybe one or two glasses a day. I commonly had headaches , commonly had migraines whenever we traveled. I hated travelling in the car because I always had a terrible headache at the end of the day. I also used to get terrible sinus problems. Do you know I don't get any of that now. When I discovered the importance of water drinking , little by little I started to implement it. I used to say to my friends I've discovered a new medicine. The kids aren't getting calls anymore , a whole lot of things happening and they said, "What is that?" I said , "Water!" Just water.

How many people get up in the morning and they don't have water. And in the morning is the most dehydrating time of the whole day. The best way to take water in, is little by little by little by little , your body can utilize it better. It's like a plant, if this plant was dry and I put 500 mil of water in there, we know where it would go. It wold all run out the bottom. But if I put a half a cup in and then I come back and put another half cup of water in it,  then I come back and put another half cup in, I can maybe get nearly a liter of water in there without any running out. And it's same with the human body, little by little is the best. The only time I will drink a whole glass of water at once would be when I wake up in the morning. Have you ever slept on a mattress on the floor and in the morning you lift up the mattress and it's all damp underneath  , that's the water that you have lost in the night. That's why you have to be very careful of your bedroom because of the water that's coming out of  your body in the night. That's why we always fold the bed clothes back and allow the bed to have a good air, have the windows open. It's even better if you can have a bedroom that has Sun coming into the bed to purify it and air it. It's important to try and get the mattress in the sun at least once a year. Change your mattress protectors. Also be cautious of under the bed. Always should have slats or wire to allows the moisture that you lose in the night to come away. Many people are tired when they wake up because of the air in their bedroom. You must very, very careful on the air in the bedroom and as we looked earlier, the electromagnetic field in that bedroom as well. So, water is lost every day. Water must be replaced.

And here is a good rule of thumb, 25 kilo of body weight  to one liter of water ( 25kg--1 liter water). That's a good rule to assess how much water the children drink and it's also a good incentive for weight loss, isn't it? I always said to my children when they wake up and I say to my grandchildren now, "Have you watered your garden yet?" What's the garden? Of course it's that lovely flora floor inside your gut . In that catalyst program called Gut Reaction , one professor said, "There's a literal jungle in there", so I say to my grandchildren ,"Have you watered your garden yet." And they come up in the morning and say with nodding heads, "Grandma we fought at our garden." I said, "I'm so pleased, I am so please because now you can have breakfast." So, it's a rule in the home. If a child doesn't want to drink water, my answer is, "I'm so sorry because you can't have breakfast now." It's very simple. So lots of little ways to encourage the children to drink water. You will notice if the children don't drink water as soon as they've eaten  then they want to drink their water. And what the water does is it neutralizes the stomach acid. We need that stomach acid to be about a pH of 2.5 . That's very acid. And your stomach needs to be that acid, you will not feel it because you drank a glass of water half an hour before the meal, you got a nice thick mucosal wall there. So, you will not feel it but that pH is necessary for the enzymes in the stomach to be activated , to be able to break your protein down. That's why you stopped drinking water about half an hour before the meal and you start drinking about an hour and a half (1.5) to two (2) hours after the meal. If someone's thirsty when they eat, by all means have a mouthful of water but at the same time it needs to be assessed how much water has been drunk. So, you can prevent needing to drink with your meals by drinking  between your meals. As I said with exercise , not negotiable subject and so is water, it's a non-negotiable subject. And if you get sick, if you have diarrhea or  constipation or if you have a headache or called up your water intake. Dr. Christopher in America, he said, "Here's a sign to tell if you're drinking too much water. Put your head on the side and if the water comes out your ears, in other words, it's almost impossible to drink too much water. The only time you could drink too much water is if you're not having those minerals so as soon as you start drinking more water you will start to lose a few more minerals so it's very important to have the proper salt. My suggestion is about about a teaspoon of salt in a day.  Over the day if a person is not used to having solve . I say, "start small and start small just little by little increase it and your body will adapt to that just as it adapts 
to no-salt it will start to adapt to proper salt. Third most vital element needed for life. What it is an amazing substance. What it can be used for healing to Hydrotherapy is a huge subject I have whole books written on hydrotherapy which is water therapy . And steam sauna that our guests have at night or in late afternoon where they go into the little steam heart for about 10-15 minutes  and then have a cold shower or if they are brave they can run down to the creek and dive in the creek and then back in again we're doing hot and colds and by the third steam the body temperature , the core body temperature, can sometimes be up to 40 degrees and when the body gets up to 40 degrees , circulation metabolism increases by four hundred percent . That's quite remarkable isn't it. So when circulation and metabolism increased 400 percent that means healing is increasing by four hundred percent elimination of waste is being boosted 400 times. So that's quite remarkable, not everyone has a steam bath but it also explains why this is such an important part of a detox program. 

As I told you earlier, up to 70 percent of bodies waste can come out of the body when the body's given the right can and that condition is that steam. The only time a person may not be able to handle the steam  is if they go into the steam bath dehydrated. So, very important the person be well hydrated when they go in.  But I'd like to just give you some very simple treatments now that you can use in the home. 

I had a lady ring me up one day and she  said, "Barbara my 10 year old has just trodden on a rusty nail and she is not vaccinated." I said, 'Aha!" She said, "We have your poultice DVD  and so we put a grated potato poultice on the wound." I said, " Good, that's a good  choice." She said to me, "But it's still a little bit swollen and it's still a little bit sore. " I said, "Aha!" Well, you can go one step further. Get two buckets of water and make one very hot and put the child's foot in the hot water for 3 minutes. How hot ? As hot as the child can stand. We don't want to burn the child . I always put a person's foot in my hand and I put my hand in the water so my hands is filling the water. And if the person cannot take it the only time you would not do it would be someone who has poor circulation. Maybe the very old or the very young someone who has diabetes and they can't feel their feet properly, that's the only time you would not do it. So, 3 minutes hot water and then cold and it's as cold as you can ideally put some ice cubes in that cold and the cold is done for 30 seconds. So, what's happening here, is when the foot is put into hot water. We're  warm-blooded creatures, so immediately the blood rushes to the area. And when the blood rushes to the area, fresh bloods coming in and fresh blood is bringing more oxygen, more nutrients, more water, more white blood cell and as it pushes the old out, it's throwing off the waste. Can you see that? Now after 3 minutes, the blood starts to slow down because that's what happens when I am in hot bath. Isn't it? We start to slow down to the point of sleep . And so you pull the foot out of  the bucket and dip into the ice cold. Will that wake it up? WHOA! We humans are warm-blooded creatures and whenever cold touches our body, there's a reaction. Basically the body's going "W O W! COLD !" it has the potential to kill us " QUICK MOVE FAST ! " Can you see that's the reaction? Now withing 30 seconds , the reaction has died down and the blood can start slowing down. So, we put it back in the hot and wake it up again. So, whenever you do the hot(3 minutes), you have a kettle of boiling water there and while the foot or the hand or whatever you're doing is in the cold, you heat up the hot with a bit of boiling water (from the kettle),  again test. Tested. You do this whole thing three (3) times. [ HOT-3 MINUTES ,<--then-->, COLD (ICE CUBES)-30 SECONDS ; 3 TIMES] Always starting with the hot and always finishing with the cold. you see, finishing with the cold equalizes the blood circulation , closes pores, prevents chilling. The only time we have someone faint in our steam bath is that they had the steam and they didn't want to have the cold shower, so they went and stood in the cool air. And then came back in, cool air does not do what cold (ice cubes) water does. It is the reaction of the cold water on the blood and that doesn't happen with cold air. If someone says, "Well, I want to do this thing but not the cold .." 
I say, " Well, I'm sorry, you can't do it." Because you'll be in trouble if you don't finish with that cold. It's only quick. It's only quick. 
So, the lady did this to her little girl that had trodden on the rusty nail, 3 minutes in the hot, 30 seconds in the cold. Three times
And then I said, "Put the grated potato on. " 
I said, "Ring me in two hours. " 
You see, if there's no response in two hours , what do  I say, "You go straight to hospital. " 
I said, "Ring me in two hours." She rang me and she said she's laughing and all her pain has gone and there is no redness at all around the foot. 
I said, " Good."
My suggestion would be with this girl to do "hot and cold" maybe 3 times a day and you probably only need to do the grated potato poultice overnight. I always say watch the body's reaction and if 

Image result for grated potato poultice

Image result for grated potato poultice

your body says , YES . Remember you're the doctor : Are you getting relief ? 

I tell you another story similar. I was in New Zealand and I was seeing a lady. She brought her 7-year-old boy. And he was just with her while she talked to me. And my eye immediately went to his finger. Now this finger, the joint was all swollen.
Image result for finger joint swollen

Image result for puss finger

It was red and there was like a white puss bid on top. I said, "What's the matter with the finger?"
She said, "Well, the doctor says it's cellulitis. "
You know what cellulitis is? Inflammation of the cell. I said, "Yes, it is. I can see that." But what am I asking now? Why? Because that wouldn't have happened for no reason. She said, " I  a few days ago, he had a blister on his finger and he was playing in the dirt. And the blister broke are we starting to see what happened." Uh-huh. I said, "What have you been doing?" 
It wasn't a few days ago, it was actually a few weeks ago because she said, ' He's on his second course of antibiotic. He's having to take painkillers at night to sleep. And sleeping tablets. So, he's on three medications and he's seven year old. I said, " um, do you mind if I try something." 
She said, "Not at all." Not at all. Now I got the permission of  the child. Always get the permission of the child because 'a man convinced against his will, will be of the same opinion.' Still I always use the will. 
I said, " Can I do this, can I just do the 'hot and cold' treatment ?" I told him what I was going to do. I explain it, he nodded. And I got two cups. He could not take the hot, so, I made it a bit colder, he could not take it with me until he could bear it. When he could bear it after 3 minutes, we put his swollen finger in ice cold. While he's in there, we put hot water in there little hot mug. And then I said, "Get your good finger and put your good finger in there so that your brain can assess that water is not that hot. Yes. And this time he saw his finger could bear the hot. He did it three times . By the end of it, a small came to his face. In 15 minutes we had reduced the pain by 50% . Fifteen minutes. What do we do? We just got fresh supplies of blood in which took the old blood out. It's very simple. And then, I grated the potato and I put it on his finger. His mother rang me the next day. She said, " This is amazing. He woke in the morning and said,'can I do more  'hot and cold' treatment ?" See? He'd experienced the relief. She said, " By the end of the next day, by the second grated potato poultice, all the junk-puss came out." He had no more pain. And if he does get pain, what does he do? Just goes back to this 'Hot & Cold Treatment' (3 minutes in the hot, 30 seconds in the cold. Three times. Wrapped up with grated potato poultice).
She said, " What will I do with the antibiotic?" 
I said, "I'll leave them up to you." I can tell you what I would do if you would like to ask. She was so excited. It's so simple, isn't it? it's incredibly simple. 

So, water is not just a powerful thing to take into our human body, we can use it externally to bring relief with simple almonds. And before I close , I'll just give you one last one which every home should know this remedy. 

And this is our straight hot foot bath . And it's done for a headache. It's done for headache. It's done for if someone's highly stressed. It's done if someone has a congested  chest or problems in their abdomen.  You see, our head, our chest and our abdomen have a reflex in the feet. And often there's congestion of blood if there's a problem here (abdomen) or here(chest) or in the head. So, you put your feet in hot water and basically, the brain goes, "wow! the feet need help, send the extra blood down."  So, it takes the blood from congested area, we have many guests come here that have headaches from caffeine withdrawals. So, we're doing lots of hot-foot-bath. 20 minutes in the hot-foot-bath, maybe every 5 minutes , add a little bit of boiling water. When the hot-foot-bath finishes , they put their feet up and you pour cold water over their feet and then dry with a towel.Very simple treatment. Very Simple. Someone stressed out. Bad headache. Congestion in the chest. That's called a straight-hot-foot-bath.

You'll never look at water the same again. Will you? 

8-Laws Of Healthy Longevity
1. Pure Air, 2.Sunshine, 3.Water, 4. Proper Diet, 5. Rest, 
6. Temperance, 7. Exercise, 8. Trust in Divine Power. 

**[Hydrochloric Acid and Health:
Hydrochloric acid (HCL) is produced in the stomach to aid in activating digestion of foods and protection of the intestinal flora. Excess stomach acid (HCL) has traditionally been treated as a result of low HCL levels that creates cycles of over- and under-production. With the advent of direct-to-consumer marketing by pharmaceutical companies, the public was entrained to believe that this was purely an excess HCL problem that needed to be suppressed with antacids, leaving behind the science, physiology, and wisdom of the body.

By suppressing HCL levels, you lose absorption of protein, iron, iodine, B12, Folic acid, Zinc, Calcium, Magnesium, and other minerals. Current antacid products started carrying a Black Box Warning in 2010 about their use leading to osteoporosis from decreased calcium absorption. Another warning about the loss of Magnesium was released in 2012 by the FDA – The Journal of the American Medical Association has now published a study at the end of 2013 that demonstrates that these medications are linked to B12 deficiencies. It has taken 20-30 years to get these Black Box warnings on these medications, when they should have been there from the beginning. This is just basic physiology, which it appears the medical profession no longer understands. Eventually, all of these losses will need to be considered, as they all occur. Black Box Warnings should read:

“Can lead to loss of absorption of Protein, Iron, Iodine, B12, Folic acid, Zinc, Calcium, Magnesium, and other vitamins and minerals leading to sickness, serious diseases, and some forms of cancer!”

You also lose the protective and functional effects that HCL provides. Proper HCL levels in the stomach kill off many pathogens that otherwise would enter into the intestinal tract and potentially create problems. Clostridium difficile, the number one cause of infectious disease deaths with over 30,000 per year, is linked to antacid medications. Proper HCL levels are necessary to digestive function once food leaves the stomach and passes into the intestinal tract. The acidic base that the food is in, as well as the partially digested foods from HCL’s presence in the stomach, trigger further digestion and absorption of nutrients. Without this, we don’t have proper liver/gall bladder and pancreatic function and digestion. This will cause further nutritional losses of fats, fat-soluble vitamins, proteins, etc.

HCL deficiencies can lead to the creation and overgrowth of pathogenic bacteria and fungus in the intestinal tract through altered pH. The downside to HCL deficiency spirals out exponentially at a very rapid pace creating systemic problems throughout the body and contributing to long-term health challenges, conditions, and diseases.

A recent study found that 71% of patients taking antacid medication, Proton Pump Inhibitors (Prilosec, Prevacid, Aciphex, Protonix, and Nexium) or H2 Receptor antagonists (Tagamet, Zantac, Ranitidine) had fungal candida overgrowth. Also present, was overgrowth of antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria. Both findings point to the lasting effects of antibiotics in the body, and the risk of antacid medications. Prolonged use of antacid medications is associated with increased risk of hypergastrinaemia that leads to cancer. Taking antacid medications causes destruction of the stomach lining.

Low HCL levels are associated with skin conditions such as psoriasis, eczema, rosacea, boils and dermatitis, as well as problems like fibromyalgia.

One of the most common causes of HCL imbalances is past antibiotic use. Antibiotics destroy the beneficial bacteria that synthesize B vitamins necessary for HCL production in the stomach. Antibiotics alone are not shown to be capable of inducing low levels of HCL. It also requires the overgrowth of fungal candida that happens subsequent to antibiotic use. Fungal candida plays a role in reshaping the bacterial flora to a composition that affects HCL production.

It is believed that HCL production starts to decline as we get older. This may also be a result of past antibiotic use, so I’m not as convinced that this is a normal part of aging, as it is a normal part of a society that is over-inundated with antibiotic exposures. Once antibiotics destroy the beneficial bacteria of the stomach and intestines, candida plays a role in determining subsequent function.

Unfortunately, most medical doctors are completely unaware of the widespread nutritional and functional downside from antibiotic and antacid use. If you’d like to put your MD through the litmus test on his knowledge of human physiology, a required course of study for all doctors in order to be licensed, ask him to explain which nutrients are lost when taking antacid medications. Then observe as all kinds of responses manifest, except a direct answer to your question. Ask him to give you the typical dosage on antacid medications and he’ll pass with flying colors. The knowledge of the human body has been replaced with pharmaceutical protocols.

Many Holistic doctors treat low HCL by giving Betaine HCL with Pepsin in either capsule or tablet form. If someone has chronic inflammation of the intestinal tract and they take HCL, it tends to produce a burning sensation. A warming sensation is normal. A burning sensation with just one capsule can be diagnostic for chronic intestinal inflammation. In either case, restoring normal HCL levels is essential to health, and chronic low levels can have a tremendous negative effect on health and healing.

The typical protocol for taking HCL is as follows:
You start by taking 1 capsule of HCL with each meal. If no burning occurs, continue to increase this by 1 with each meal, per day, or every other day, until it creates a burning sensation, then decrease the dosage by 1 capsule and stay at this dosage. For example, you take 1 capsule with each meal on Monday. If no burning, take 2 capsules with each meal on Wednesday. If no burning, take 3 capsules with each meal on Friday, etc. Now if on Saturday, you took 4 capsules and experienced a burning sensation, then you would back off to the 3 capsules with each meal and stay at that dosage. Some people get up to 4-8 capsules with each meal. How long you stay there varies, but I have seen some people do this for a year or two, before they start to get a burning sensation and then need to reduce the dosage. Once in a great while, someone will do the 1 pill with each meal for one day and then find that their HCL production kicks in and they don’t need anymore. It’s a rarity, but does happen. Balancing your digestive function as the same time through the McCombs Plan can help to reduce how long someone might need to take HCL.

So how do you know if you have a HCL deficiency? The expensive way is via the Heidelberg pH Capsule or the GastroCap. This is ordered by your doctor. Another way to check at home is to mix one-quarter teaspoon of baking soda in eight ounces of cold water, first thing in the morning, before eating or drinking anything except water. Drink the baking soda solution. Time how long it takes to belch. Time up to five minutes. If you have not belched within five minutes stop timing anyway.

If your stomach is producing adequate amounts of hydrochloric acid you should probably belch within two to three minutes. Three to five minutes will most likely be due to some level of deficiency. Early and repeated belching may be due to excessive stomach acid. Belching results from the acid and baking soda reacting to form carbon dioxide gas. The Heidelberg or Gastrocap tests can be employed for confirmation of the results of this test.

If while you’re correcting HCL imbalances, you find that you have an excess amount at anytime, the old remedy of 1/4 teaspoon of baking soda in some water works well. Antacid medications can continue to produce negative effects years after discontinuing them.

For those people who find themselves caught in the cycle of chronic intestinal inflammation and HCL imbalances and taking 1 capsule produces burning, you may have to start by opening the HCL capsule and just using a pinch of HCL with each meal mixed in water. It can be a bit of an uphill battle, but it is a much better alternative to a steady downhill slide in overall health. For long-lasting results, restoring the health of the digestive tract will produce the best results.

The bottom line is this: Antibiotic use and subsequent fungal candida overgrowth together can create low levels of HCL that lead to acid reflux, gastritis, ulcers, and a number of conditions. Treatment with antacid medications helps to create even more fungal candida overgrowth and a very long list of conditions, diseases, and cancers. Either way, fungal candida will be present. How will you treat it?]


FIGURE 27-1: Overview of respiratory physiology. This chapter is organized around the principle that respiratory function includes external respiration (ventilation and pulmonary gas exchange), transport of gases by blood, and internal respiration (systemic tissue gas exchange and cellular respiration). Cellular respiration is discussed separately. Regulatory mechanisms centered in the brain-stem use feedback from blood gas sensors to regulate ventilation.



  I. Cell Membranes

A. Cell membranes help organisms maintain homeostasis by controlling what substances may enter or leave cells

B. Some substances can cross the cell membrane without any input of energy by the cell

C. The movement of such substances across the membrane is known as passive transport

D. To stay alive, a cell must exchange materials such as food, water, & wastes with its environment

E. These materials must cross the cell or plasma membrane

F. Small molecules like water, oxygen, & carbon dioxide can move in and out freely

G. Large molecules like proteins & carbohydrates cannot move easily across the plasma membrane

H. The Cell Membrane is semipermeable or selectively permeable only allowing certain molecules to pass through

II. Diffusion

A. Diffusion is the movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration

B. Small molecules can pass through the cell membrane by a process called diffusion

C. Diffusion across a membrane is a type of passive transport because it does not require energy

D. This difference in the concentration of molecules across a membrane is called a concentration gradient

E. Diffusion is driven by the kinetic energy of the molecules

F. Kinetic energy keeps molecules in constant motion causing the molecules to move randomly away from each other in a liquid or a gas

G. The rate of diffusion depends on temperature, size of the molecules, & type of molecules diffusing

H. Molecules diffuse faster at higher temperatures than at lower temperatures

I. Smaller molecules diffuse faster than larger molecules

J. Most short-distance transport of materials into & out of cells occurs by diffusion

K. Solutions have two parts --- the solute which is being dissolved in the solvent

L. Water serves as the main solvent in living things

M. Diffusion always occurs down a concentration gradient (water moves from an area where it is more concentrated to an area where it is less concentrated)

N. Diffusion continues until the concentration of the molecules is the same on both sides of a membrane

O. When a concentration gradient no longer exists, equilibrium has been reached but molecules will continue to move equally back & forth across a membrane

III. Osmosis

A. The diffusion of water across a semipermeable membrane is called osmosis

B. Diffusion occurs from an area of high water concentration (less solute) to an area of lower water concentration (more solute)

C. Movement of water is down its concentration gradient & doesn’t require extra energy

D. Cytoplasm is mostly water containing dissolved solutes

E. Concentrated solutions have many solute molecules & fewer water molecules

F. Water moves from areas of low solute concentration to areas of high solute concentration

G. Water molecules will cross membranes until the concentrations of water & solutes is equal on both sides of the membrane; called equilibrium

H. At equilibrium, molecules continue to move across membranes evenly so there is no net movement

I. Hypertonic Solution
1. Solute concentration outside the cell is higher (less water)
2. Water diffuses out of the cell until equilibrium is reached
3. Cells will shrink & die if too much water is lost
4. Plant cells become flaccid (wilt); called plasmolysis

J. Hypotonic Solution
1. Solute concentration greater inside the cell (less water)
2. Water moves into the cell until equilibrium is reached
3. Animal cells swell & burst (lyse) if they take in too much water
4. Cytolysis is the bursting of cells
5. Plant cells become turgid due to water pressing outward against cell wall
6. Turgor pressure in plant cells helps them keep their shape
7. Plant cells do best in hypotonic solutions

K. Isotonic Solutions
1. Concentration of solutes same inside & outside the cell
2. Water moves into & out of cell at an equal rate so there is no net movement of water
3. Animal cells do best in isotonic solutions

IV. How Cells Deal With Osmosis

A. The cells of animals on land are usually in isotonic environment (equilibrium)

B. Freshwater organisms live in hypotonic environments so water constantly moves into their cells

C. Unicellular freshwater organisms use energy to pump out excess water by contractile vacuoles

D. Plant cell walls prevent plant cells from bursting in hypotonic environments

E. Some marine organisms can pump out excess salt

V. Facilitated Diffusion

A. Faster than simple diffusion

B. Considered passive transport because extra energy not used

C. Occurs down a concentration gradient

D. Involves carrier proteins embedded in a cell’s membrane to help move across certain solutes such as glucose

E. Carrier molecules change shape when solute attaches to them

F. Change in carrier protein shape helps move solute across the membrane

G. Channel proteins in the cell membrane form tunnels across the membrane to move materials

H. Channel proteins may always be open or have gates that open & close to control the movement of materials; called gated channels

I. Gates open & close in response to concentration inside & outside the cell

VI. Active Transport

A. Requires the use of ATP or energy

B. Moves materials against their concentration gradient from an area of lower to higher concentration

C. May also involve membrane proteins

D. Used to move ions such as Na+, Ca+, and K+ across the cell membrane

E. Sodium-Potassium pump moves 3 Na+ out for every 2 K+ into the cell
1. Causes a difference in charge inside and outside the cell
2. Difference in charge is called membrane potential

F. Ion pumps help muscle & nerve cells work

G. Plants use active transport to help roots absorb nutrients from the soil (plant nutrients are more concentrated inside the root than outside)

VII. Bulk Transport

A. Moves large, complex molecules such as proteins across the cell membrane

B. Large molecules, food, or fluid droplets are packaged in membrane-bound sacs called vesicles

C. Endocytosis moves large particles into a cell

D. Phagocytosis is one type of endocytosis
1. Cell membrane extends out forming pseudopods (fingerlike projections) that surround the particle
2. Membrane pouch encloses the material & pinches off inside the cell making a vesicle
3. Vesicle can fuse with lysosomes (digestive organelles) or release their contents in the cytoplasm
4. Used by ameba to feed & white blood cells to kill bacteria
5. Known as "cell eating"

E. Pinocytosis is another type of endocytosis
1. Cell membrane surrounds fluid droplets
2. Fluids taken into membrane-bound vesicle
3. Known as "cell drinking"

F. Exocytosis is used to remove large products from the cell such as wastes, mucus, & cell products

G. Proteins made by ribosomes in a cell are packaged into transport vesicles by the Golgi Apparatus

H. Transport vesicles fuse with the cell membrane and then the proteins are secreted out of the cell (e.g. insulin)

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