Saturday, April 29, 2017


Volume 2, Issue 1


The Final Results of a Replication of Callahan’s 1987 Study
Glenn Leonoff, Ph.D.

The replication of Callahan’s 1987 study has been 
completed and the final results reveal an 
astounding similarity in the findings of the two studies.

Radio listeners with phobias and anxiety states 
were invited to call radio programs in order to 
receive live-on-the-air treatment by the 
investigators. The proprietary Voice 
Technology(tm) pioneered by Callahan was 
used as the method of application of TFT 
treatment procedures by both Callahan and 
Leonoff in their respective studies. Each 
study included 68 subjects.

Consistent with the procedure of Callahan’s initial 
study, the results of the present study include the 
data for all callers who were treated, including 
those whose treatments were interrupted due to 
programming requirements before optimal 
therapeutic results could be achieved. Callahan 
used this stringent procedure in order to minimize bias.

Treatment effectiveness was measured by the 
caller’s own report about their experienced 
intensity of distress. Callahan used a ten-point 
(1 to 10) Subjective Units of Distress (SUD) 
rating scale while Leonoff used an eleven-
point (0 to 10) SUD scale.

Despite the less than ideal conditions of treating psychological disorders on radio programs, a remarkable
97 percent success rate was achieved by both investigators. A successful treatment was defined as an improvement
of two or more SUD points.

Callahan’s mean (average) pre-treatment distress 
rating was 8.35 and his mean post-treatment 
rating was 2.01, representing a 75.9 percent 
improvement. Leonoff’s mean pre-treatment 
distress rating was 8.19 and his mean 
post-treatment rating was 1.59, representing a 
75.2 percent improvement. Callahan achieved 
his results in an average time of four minutes 
and thirty-four seconds. Leonoff required an 
average time of six minutes and four seconds.

As in Callahan’s study treatment time represented 
the entire duration of talking to the caller until 
treatment was completed, not just the actual 
treatment time itself. Since treatment time 
entailed the entire time spent in talking with a 
caller prior to initiation of actual treatment, it is 
believed that personal interaction styles of the 
practitioners account for some of the difference
in these measures. A greater willingness to 
engage in conversation with a caller prior to 
initiating the actual treatment would have 
resulted in a longer documented treatment time. 
A more exact measure of actual treatment 
duration would have been to measure only the
actual treatment time. Such a procedure would 
have reflected the duration of actual treatment 
time more accurately.

Summary Table  
Callahan (1987)...... Leonoff (1996)
Number of Radio Programs ...23.....................36
Number of Subjects Treated ...68.....................68
Successfully Treated ...66....................66
Unsuccessfully Treated ...2 .....................2
Success Rate ...97% .............97%
Pre-Treatment Mean(Average)SUD Level ...8.35 ....................8.19
Post-Treatment Mean (Average) SUD Level ............ 2.01 ....................1.58
Mean (Average) Improvement in SUD Level ........... 6.34 ....................6.61
Mean (Average) Improvement Percent ................79.2% ................. 75.2%
Mean (Average) Treatment Time (Minutes) ........... 4:34 ....................6:04

The fact that these incredibly similar results were 
achieved a decade apart by two independent 
investigators with dissimilar professional 
backgrounds and significant differences in their 
experience and knowledge of TFT procedures, 
provides strong support for the efficiency, 
effectiveness and reliability of the TFT treatment 

Callahan was the pioneer and developer of these 
revolutionary treatment procedures. He 
undertook his study after approximately six 
years of refining his methods. Leonoff 
embarked on his study during the course of his 
first year of study with Callahan. Thus, there 
was a distinct difference between the two 
investigators in their level of technical 
knowledge, experience and theoretical 
understanding of the TFT procedures. The 
virtually identical therapeutic success 
demonstrated by the two investigators is
an indicator of the power and predictability 
of the TFT procedures despite the differing 
levels of expertise between the investigators.

All the research data of this replication study is preserved on recorded audio tapes and available 
for further scientific investigation.

The Callahan/Leonoff studies were not intended to investigate the duration of the achieved 
therapeutic gains. Duration of treatment results 
is an obviously important clinical issue for any 
psychotherapeutic procedure. Research 
concerning the duration of TFT treatment is an 
important next step in the establishment of an 
empirical basis for the efficacy of this procedure. 
Hopefully, the robust findings of the two studies 
will stimulate more extensive research which 
will address the issue of duration of TFT results.

Preliminary research data supporting the duration of successful TFT treatment is provided by the 
six month follow-up data from the Figley and 
Carbonell study, “Active Ingredients in Efficient 
Treatment of PTSD,” conducted at Florida State 
University in 1995. According to the report 
presented by of these two researchers at the 
International Society for Traumatic Stress 
Studies in Boston on November 3, 1995, TFT
treatment gains were maintained on six-month 
follow-up. This research is expected to be 
published during 1996. The Figley and 
Carbonell data provide important 
corroboration to clinical observations of the 
enduring results of TFT. There is documented 
clinical evidence of TFT therapeutic gains 
holding for ten years or more.

A highly significant aspect of the Callahan/Leonoff research is that the demonstrated 
psychotherapeutic success was achieved through a 
procedure which is based on the diagnosis and 
treatment of the little known body energy system. 
The success of the TFT procedures represents a 
change in the psychotherapeutic paradigm of psychology.

The diagnostic and therapeutic procedures of TFT 
are founded on the identification of specific 
imbalances in the body energy system as identified 
through specific diagnostic assessment while the 
subject is engaged in thinking about or 
experiencing their particular psychological concern.

Briefly, it is hypothesized that the therapeutic 
results of TFT demonstrate that the body energy 
system is primary to human functioning and is the
foundational basis for biochemical, hormonal, 
neurological and cognitive levels of human 
functioning. This theoretical formulation is based 
on the understanding in modern physics that 
complex energy fields and their interrelationships 
are the basis for all matter, including that of the 
human organism. It is theorized that the stimulation of specifically defined points along the meridian
energy system transduces the physical energy 
generated by the TFT tapping procedure into a 
form of electromagnetic 
energy which has a direct and positive impact on 
the psychological thought field maintained by 
the individual undergoing treatment.

The body energy system is generally little known and un-mastered in western clinical practice, there are isolated recognized pioneers who have ventured to study this level of our organism’s functioning and have reported findings with clear implications for the procedures and success of TFT.

In the 1940’s Harold Saxon Burr of Yale University provided strong evidence that the body is an energy system and that the state of this energy system is critically significant to the development 
of living organisms.

Orthopedic surgeon, Robert O. Becker, M.D. 
(1985), determined the significance of 
electromagnetic energy fields to bone healing and 
developed successful treatment methods based on 
his findings. Through the application of electro-
magnetic fields he was able to restore natural 
healing ability in the human organism in terms of 
enabling bones which would not heal 
spontaneously to heal under the influence of 
governed energy fields. Another fascinating aspect 
of Becker’s research with electromagnetic fields 
enabled him to unleash regeneration of amputated 
limbs in frogs. The extraordinary aspect of this 
work was that frogs normally do not naturally 
regenerate their lost limbs. Yet, treatments based 
on the application of electromagnetic energy fields 
actualized this healing potential.

The relevance of the body polarity state to human 
health is dramatically demonstrated in a study by 
Louis Langman, M.D., “The Implications of the 
Electro-Metric Test in Cancer of the Female 
Genital Tract.” This study was published in the 
appendix of Burr’s (1972) book, Blueprint for 
Immortality: The Electric Patterns of Life (1972),
Langman’s findings make a strong case for the
relationship between the well being of the human 
organism and its polarity. In this study at the 
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, New
York University, College of Medicine Langman 
found a dramatic difference in polarity between 
woman with cellularly diagnosed cancer of the 
genital tract and women with no diagnosis of 
such cancer. Woman with diagnosed cancer had negative polarity in the genital tract 96% of the time as compared to woman with
no known malignancy who showed negative polarity only 5% of the time. This dramatic difference offers
further evidence for the importance of the energy system in the health of individuals. Unfortunately, there is
no known followup research to these findings.
After twenty years of research the eminent radiologist and former president of Nobel Laureate nominating
committee, Bjorn Nordenstrom (1983) of the Karolinska Institute in Sweden published, Biologically Closed
Electric Circuits: Clinical, Experimental and Theoretical Evidence for An Additional Circulatory System.
In essence, Nordenstrom postulated a circulatory energy system within the human body which he believes
to be as vital to human health as the circulatory blood system. This is a profound statement from such a renowned
western scientist. His research led him to believe that disturbances in the body energy system may
be involved in the development of cancer and other diseases. Nordenstrom has been successful in producing
complete remission from various types of cancers metastatic to the lung through the application of polarity
in electrical currents.
Pierre de Vernejoul (1985) at Nekker Hospital in Paris, France reported empirical evidence for the existence
of the meridian (energy) system. His research team injected radioactive technetium 99m into acupoints
and followed the isotope’s uptake with gamma-camera imaging. Their findings indicated the radioactive
substance migrated along the classical meridian pathways the Chinese had defined several thousand
years ago. Injection of the substance into random locations in the body revealed they followed no determined
pathway. The results suggested the meridian system is a separate morphological pathway.
Treatment procedures directed at the meridian system have been successfully applied not only by TFT but
by the disciplines of acupuncture and applied kinesiology. The demonstrated effectiveness of TFT offers
strong evidence for the significance of the meridian energy system relative to the rapid treatment of psychological
In this era of efforts to find cost-saving health procedures and practices, TFT provides the type of efficient
and effective treatment procedures which can help to achieve such objectives in the field of mental health.
The three levels of training in TFT proficiency (Voice Technology(tm), Physical Assessment, Algorithm)
allow for relatively rapid training of practitioners who are able to provide effective treatment in a variety of
health service settings. TFT trained clinicians are able to have access to rapid telephone consultations for
clients with complex disorders from practitioners trained in the use of the proprietary Voice Technology(tm).
Such consultations provide for therapeutic support at the highest levels of proficiency for clinicians at all
levels of TFT training.

Becker, R.O. and Selden, G. (1985). The Body Electric: Electromagnetism and the Foundation of Life.
William Morrow and Co., NY.

Burr, H.S. (1972). Blueprint for Immortality: The Electric Patterns of Life. Neville Spearman, London.

Callahan, R. (1987). Successful Treatment of Phobias and Anxiety by Telephone and Radio. Collected Papers of the International College of Applied Kinesiology, Winter.

De Vernejoul, P., et al. (1985). Etude Des Meridians D’Acupunture Par Les Traceurs Radioactifs, Bull.
Acad. Natle. Med, 169, 1071-1075.

Langman, L. (1972). The Implications of the Electro-Metric Test in Cancer of the Female Genital Tract. In Burr, H.S. Blueprint for Immortality: The Electric Patterns of Life. Neville
Spearman, London. 123-154.

Nordenstrom, B. (1983). Biologically Closed Electric Circuits: Clinical, Experimental and Theoretical

Evidence for An Additional Circulatory System Nordic, Stockholm
Neville Spearman, London.
Callahan, R. (1987). Successful Treatment of Phobias and Anxiety by Telephone

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